I. CONFORMITY, DEVIANCE, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY.
Introduction: The Sociological Perspective and Focus on Juvenile Delinquency.
1. Juvenile Delinquency: The Act, Actor, and Audience.
What Is Juvenile Delinquency?
A Synthesized Definition of Delinquency.
2. A Sociological Overview: Society, Norms, Conformity, and Deviant Behavior.
The Sociological Perspective.
The Social Nature of Humans.
Sources of Norms.
Folkways and Mores.
Normative Behavior: Conformity.
Deviant Behavior: Nonconformity.
Negative Aspects of Deviance.
Positive Aspects of Deviance.
3. The Dimensions of the Delinquency Problem.
Juvenile Delinquency Data.
Official Sources of Delinquency Information.
The Composite Delinquent Profile: Typical or Stereotypical?
Unofficial Sources of Delinquency Information.
The Magnitude and Trends of Juvenile Delinquency: A Demographic Analysis.
Addendum: “A Balanced Perspective of American Youth.”
II. CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY.
Introduction: Theory and the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquency.
4. Biological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency.
The Link between Biology and Behavior: Myths and Folklore.
The Classical School of Criminological Thought.
The Positive School of Criminology.
Twentieth-Century Constitutional Typologies.
The Continuing Search for the Biological Connection.
5. Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency.
The Psychogenic Approach.
The Discovery of the Unconscious.
The Formation of Personality.
Freudian Theory as an Explanation of Crime and Delinquency.
Delinquent Acts as Symptoms.
Other Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency.
A Psychological Typology of Delinquency.
Criticisms and Limitations of the Psychogenic Approach.
6. Sociological Explanations of Delinquency: Social Strain and Cultural Transmission Theories.
Social Strain Theories.
Cultural Transmission Theories.
7. Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Learning and Social Control Theories.
Social Learning Theories.
Social Control Theories.
8. Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Labeling and Radical Theories.
An Overview of the Sociological Explanations.
9. The Future for Causal Explanations of Delinquency: The Ongoing Process of Theory-Building.
Introduction: A Review of Past Theory-Building for Explaining Juvenile Delinquency.
A Renewed Examination of Delinquency Motivation: “Crime is Fun!”
Making Decisions for Delinquency: Rational Choice Theory.
The Punishment Response: Deterrence Theory.
Back to the Future: The Prospects and Direction for New Theory-Building.
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion.
III. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT.
Introduction: Collective Behavior and Social Groupings.
10. The Family and Juvenile Delinquency.
The Changing Role of the Family.
Increasing Importance of the Nuclear Family and the Creation of “Adolescence.”
The Family as an Agent of Socialization.
Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquency.
Other Family Variables and Juvenile Delinquency.
Single-Parent Families and Delinquency.
The Family and Delinquency Prevention.
The School as an Arena.
Schools and the Socialization Process.
Juvenile Delinquency and the School Experience.
Schools as a “Screening Device.”
Schools as “Combat Zones.”
School as Bureaucracy.
Schools and Delinquency Prevention.
12. The Youth Subculture.
Culture, Subcultures, and Countercultures.
The Creation of a Youth Subculture.
Role of the Youth Subculture.
Distinctive Elements of the Youth Subculture.
The Youth Subculture and Juvenile Delinquency.
Youth Countercultures and Delinquency.
The Youth Subculture and Delinquency Prevention.
13. Juvenile Gangs and Delinquent Behavior.
The Solitary Delinquent.
The Play Group.
The Juvenile Gang.
Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.
The Motives for Gang Membership.
Composition of Gang Membership.
Dyads and Triads.
Explanatory Theories of Gang Formation and Behavior: A Summary and Synthesis.
IV. SOCIAL CONTROL: THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM.
Introduction: Elements of Social Control.
14. Juveniles and the Police.
Juvenile Encounters with Police.
Police Discretion in Handling Juveniles.
Police and Due Process.
Police, Community Policing, and Delinquency Prevention.
15. Juvenile Courts.
Historical Background of the Juvenile Courts.
The Child Savers' Movement.
The Juvenile Court.
The Juvenile Court and Due Process.
Juvenile Court Procedures.
The Role of Attorneys in Juvenile Court.
Criticisms of the Juvenile Court.
The Multifaceted Juvenile Court.
The Future of the Juvenile Court.
16. Juvenile Corrections.
Social Control and Deterrence Theory.
Voluntary Social Control.
Informal Social Control.
Formal Social Control.
Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion.
Evaluation of Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion.
V. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY.
Introduction: Approaching Treatment and Prevention in a Social Context.
17. Treatment and Prevention Strategies.
Treatment Ideology and Delinquency Treatment Programs.
Prevention Ideology and Delinquency Prevention Programs.
Sociological Approaches to Delinquency Treatment and Prevention.
Mobilizing the Community to Prevent Delinquency.
Evaluation of Delinquency Treatment and Prevention Strategies.
18. Rethinking the Delinquency Problem.
The Social Nature of Juvenile Delinquency.
Eliminating the Marginal Status of Juveniles.
Standardization or Elimination of Juvenile Codes.
Decriminalization of Status Offenses.
Revision of the Juvenile Court.
Modification of Juvenile Corrections.
Strengthening the Family.
Changing the Educational System.
Redefining Juvenile Delinquency.