Soils:An Introduction - Michael Singer - 9780131190191 - Agriculture - Soils - Pearson Schweiz AG - Der Fachverlag fuer Bildungsmedien - 978-0-1311-9019-1

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Soils:An Introduction

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Titel:   Soils:An Introduction
Reihe:   Prentice Hall
Autor:   Michael J. Singer / Donald N. Munns
Verlag:   Prentice Hall
Einband:   Softcover
Auflage:   6
Sprache:   Englisch
Seiten:   464
Erschienen:   Juli 2005
ISBN13:   9780131190191
ISBN10:   0-13-119019-9
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Soils:An Introduction

Description

For Introduction to Soil Science, Environmental Science, and Land Use Management courses at the undergraduate level.

 

This text provides a fresh look at soil science. The goal is to help students understand the parts that contribute to the whole soil individual and then appreciate how those parts function together. It begins by assembling the parts (solid, liquid and gas phases) of a soil, followed by explaining the interactions among the parts. Subsequently, genesis, classification, and interpretation of soil properties are explained. The “building the pedon”* concept introduced in the first edition is continued in this latest edition. This edition also has a “western” perspective that emphasizes water management.

*Pedon:“3-dimensional body of soil with lateral dimensions large enough to contain all soil properties.”


Features

NEW - Now in paperback!

~Significantly lowers the cost for students.

 

NEW - Many additional and improved figures-Includes many visually stimulating and concept-enhancing figures for easier comprehension and readability.

~Helps students relate technical terms and concepts to their lives.

 

NEW - Revised language-Incorporates new or expanded language into sections where students have had problems in previous editions.

~Facilitates learning by helping students comprehend the material with less effort.

 

Material on the composition of the soil atmosphere in contaminated soils.

~Helps to clarify difficult concepts.

 

Soil Taxonomy coverage-Includes all current material, including the 12th soil order, Gelisols.

~Provides the most up-to-date information to the student.

 

Section on the revised universal soil loss equation (USLE).

~Keeps students up-to-date on the most recent modifications to the USLE.

 

A progressive “building the pedon” concept-Develops this unique concept in Chapter 1 as an empty rectangle and builds on the pedon chapter-by-chapter, slowly adding inorganic and organic matter, water, and pores, until the 3-D box takes on the characteristics of a “real” soil.

~Actively and systematically involves students in learning soil parts by helping them understand how the parts fit together to make up the entire soil, and analyzing relationships from the very simple to the more complex.

 

A focus on soils as ecosystems, as parts of ecosystems, and as parts of environmental management.

~Helps students understand how each soil part relates to each other.

 

An emphasis on and careful use of scale in all figures.

~Helps students become aware of the vast range involved-from organisms as small as viruses to the expanse of landscapes.

 

Questions at the end of each chapter.

~Provides reinforcement of the concepts learned in each chapter.

 

An accessible, balanced approach.

~Covers concepts thoroughly, but without unnecessary detail that might confuse students in an introductory class.

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New to this Edition

Now in paperback!

~Significantly lowers the cost for students.

 

Many additional and improved figures-Includes many visually stimulating and concept-enhancing figures for easier comprehension and readability.

~Helps students relate technical terms and concepts to their lives.

 

Revised language-Incorporates new or expanded language into sections where students have had problems in previous editions.

~Facilitates learning by helping students comprehend the material with less effort.

Zum Seitenanfang

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction.

Soil.

What Is Soil?

How Do Soils Form?

Minerals and Organic Matter.

Size and Organization of Particles.

Soil Pores.

Surface Reactions and Transfer Processses.

Soil as an Ecosystem.

Soil Morphology.

Soil Formation.

Soil Classification.

Soil Taxonomy.

Soil Series.

Soil Management.

Summary.

Questions.

 

 2. Solids and Pores.

Particle Sizes.

The Coarse Fraction.

The Fine-Earth Fraction.

Soil Texture.

Particle Size Analysis.

Particle Arrangement.

Aggregate Shape.

Aggregate Size.

Aggregate Grade.

Mode of Formation.

Soil Minerals.

General Properties.

Silicate Minerals of Sand and Silt.

Minerals of the Clay Fraction.

Soil Organic Matter and Humus.

Coarse Organic Materials.

Colloidal Fraction.

Soil Color and Consistence.

Pores.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

Supplement 2-1: Additional Particle Size Classifications and Methods to Display Data.

Supplement 2-2: Stokes' Law.

Supplement 2-3: Mineral Formulas and Structures.

Supplement 2-4: Charge in Ions.

 

 3. Liquids and Gases.

Soil Air.

Composition.

Air Movement.

Air-Water Relationships.

Porosity.

Bulk Density and Void Ratio.

Soil Water.

Characteristics of Water.

Pore Water Composition.

Soil Water Amounts.

Soil-Liquid Interactions.

Ion Exchange.

Specific Adsorption Reactions.

Weak Sorption Reactions.

Organic Chemicals and Their Adsorption.

Nonpolar Substances.

Polar Nonionic Substances.

Adsorption Isotherms.

Pore Retention.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 3-1: Measuring CEC.

Supplement 3-2: Example CEC Calculations.

Supplement 3-3: pH.

Supplement 3-4: Partial Pressure and Gas Solubility.

Supplement 3-5: Measuring Bulk Density.

Supplement 3-6: Organic Electrolytes.

 

 4. Soil Climate.

Sunshine: Irradiation and Heating.

Radiant Energy.

Radiant Heating and Heat Dissipation.

Movement of Heat through Soil and Other Media.

Conduction (Diffusive Transfer).

Heat Capacity, Conductivity, and Temperature Gradients.

Turbulence and Heat Flow in Air and Water.

Principles in Action: Controlling Soil Climates.

Summary of Principles.

Seasonal and Geographic Variations in Soil Climate.

Management of Soil Temperature.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 4-1: Forms of Radiation.

Supplement 4-2: Movement of Heat, Water, Gases, and Solutes.

 

 5. Water in the Soil-Plant System.

Water Storage in Soil.

Water Retention and Capacity.

Water Content and Water Potential.

Modes of Water Movement.

Vapor Flow and Liquid Flow.

Saturated and Unsaturated Liquid Flow in Soil.

Water Flow in Stratified Soils.

Preferential Flow.

Principles of Water Movement.

Forces That Move Water.

Water Potential and Water Movement.

Factors Affecting Water Potentials.

Potential Differences and Gradients.

Constraints to Water Movement.

Conductivity in Soil.

Conductivity in Soil-Plant Systems.

Water Stress in Plants.

Evapotranspiration.

Factors Controlling Evaporation and Transpiration.

Measurement of Water Use.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 5-1: Capillarity.

 

 6. Managing Soil Water.

Water Management Concepts.

Nonirrigated Land.

Irrigated Agriculture.

Water Extraction and Infiltration Patterns.

Extraction by Plants.

Infiltration.

Irrigation Methods.

Flood and Furrow Irrigation.

Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation.

Drainage.

Water Use Efficiency.

Biomass-Transpiration Ratio.

Biomass-Evapotranspiration Ratio.

Growth per Unit of Water Applied (or Available).

Yield Efficiency and Economic Efficiency.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

 

 7. Soil Organisms.

Soil Communities.

Kinds of Organisms in Soil.

Proliferation, Spread, and Survival.

Requirements and Adaptations of Microbes.

Large Organisms.

Plants and Their Roots.

Soil Animals.

Soil Microorganisms.

Protozoa and Algae.

Nematodes.

Fungi.

Bacteria (Monera).

Viruses.

Constraints and Adaptations.

Physical Constraints.

Acidity, Salinity, and Other Chemical Inhibitors.

Nutritional Constraints: Nitrogen.

Nutritional Constraints: Energy and Carbon.

Associations of Microorganisms with Plants.

Rhizosphere Organisms.

Root Pathogens and Parasites.

Symbioses between Plants and Soil Microorganisms.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 7-1: Rhizobium-Legume Symbioses.

Supplement 7-2: Mycorrhizae.

Supplement 7-3: Nutritional Adaptations.

 

 8. Microbial Processes.

Decomposition of Organic Matter.

General Process of Organic Matter Decay.

Carbon Dioxide Production and Oxygen Consumption.

Humus Formation.

Release and Immobilization of N and Other Nutrients.

Decay Rates and Controlling Factors.

Managing Soil Organic Matter.

Oxidation of Ammonium, Sulfur, Iron, and Manganese.

Processes.

Requirements and Consequences.

Anoxic Processes.

Depleting of Oxygen: Reducing Conditions.

Flooded Soils.

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles.

Carbon Cycling in the Soil-Plant System.

Nitrogen Cycling in the Soil-Plant System.

Nitrogen Cycling and Soil Fertility.

Biodegradation of Chemicals in Soil.

Biodegradation, Sorption, and Diffusion.

Bioremediation.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 8-1: Biological Compounds.

Supplement 8-2: Oxidation and Reduction.

 

 

 9. Mineral Nutrients in Soils and Plants.

Nutrient Elements in Plants.

Elemental Composition of Plants.

Forms and Functions of Nutrients in Plants.

Uptake and Movement of Nutrients within Plants.

Retention and Release of Nutrients in Soil.

Soil Solution and Solid Nutrient Reserves.

Release Processes.

Movement of Ions to Roots.

Significance and Processes.

Nutrient Transport Rates.

Nutrient Mobility in Soil.

Root Growth and Development.

Characteristics and Functions of Root Systems.

Factors Affecting Root Development.

Nutrient Availability and Deficiency.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 9-1: Nutrient Elements in Plants.

Supplement 9-2: Nutrient Reserves and Release in Soil.

Supplement 9-3: Nutrient Availability and Soil pH.

 

 

10. Managing Plant Nutrients.

Fertilizers.

Common Fertilizer Materials.

Comparisons and Choices.

Determining Fertilizer Needs: Deficiency Diagnosis.

Kinds of Diagnoses.

Nurtrient Response Experiments with Plants.

Supplemental Diagnostic Procedures.

Fertilizer Efficiency and Nutrient Conservation.

Methods and Timing of Fertilizer Application.

Nutrient Cycling and the Control of Losses.

Improving Nutrient Efficiency of Plants.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

Supplement 10-1: Fertilizers: Specifications and Calculations.

 

 

11. Acidity and Salinity.

Acidity and Related Problems.

Nature and Causes.

Effects of Acidity, Al, and Mn.

Management of Soil Acidity.

Salinity and Related Problems.

Nature and Causes.

Effects of Salinity, Sodicity, and Alkalinity.

Management of Saline and Sodic Soils.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 11-1: Acids, Bases, and Exchangeable Bases.

Supplement 11-2: Aluminum and Manganese Reactions.

Supplement 11-3: Acidifying and Alkalinizing Reactions.

Supplement 11-4: pH Buffering and Lime Requirements.

Supplement 11-5: Diagnostic Tests.

Supplement 11-6: Salt, Cations, and Colloid Dispersion.

Supplement 11-7: Acid Precipitation in Cool, Humid Forests.

 

 

12. Soil Genesis.

Factors of Soil Formation.

Parent Material.

Climate.

Topography.

Biota.

Time.

People as Soil Formers.

A Soil Formation Equation.

Soil-Forming Factors: Some Interactions.

Processes of Soil Formation.

Physical Weathering.

Chemical Weathering.

Translocations.

Clay Formation.

Products.

Mineral Soils.

Organic Soils.

Hydric Soils.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Supplement 12-1: Acidification.

Supplement 12-2: Solution.

Supplement 12-3: Clay Formation.

 

 

13. Soil Information.

Kinds of Soil Information.

Geographic Data.

Point Data.

Soil Variability.

Collecting and Displaying Information.

Making a Soil Map.

Remote Sensing.

Geographic Data Handling.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

Supplement 13-1: Section-Range System.

Supplement 13-2: Orders of the Soil Survey.

 

 

14. Organizing Soils Information.

Nature Systems.

Why Organize Information?

Kinds of Organization.

Soil Taxonomy.

Other Systems.

Interpretive Systems.

USDA Land Capabillity Classification.

Timber and Range Site Indices.

Special-Purpose Groupings.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

Supplement 14-1: Suborders: An Example.

Supplement 14-2: The Canadian and FAO Soil Classification Systems.

Supplement 14-3: The Storie Index System.

 

 

15. Soil Degradation.

Soil Erosion.

Water Erosion.

Wind Erosion.

Gravity Erosion (Mass Wasting).

Physical Degradation.

Surface Crusts and Seals.

Compaction.

Chemical Degradation.

Nature of the Problem.

Contaminant Interactions with Soil.

Treating Contaminated Soils.

Degradation Control.

Erosion Control.

Control of Physical Degradation.

Special Problems.

Desertification.

Organic Soil Degradation.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

 

 

16. Nonagricultural Uses of Soils.

Waste Disposal on Soils.

On-Site Disposal.

Off-Site Disposal.

Engineering Properties.

Soil Strength.

Atterberg Limits.

Shrink-Swell.

Recreation and Construction.

Recreational Facilities.

Construction.

Reclaimed and Artificial Soils.

Polders.

Mine Soils.

Turf and Golf Greens.

Horticultural Mixes.

Summary.

Questions.

Further Reading.

Web Resources.

Supplement 16-1: Perc Test.

Supplement 16-2: Suitability Criteria for Recreation.

Supplement 16-3: Suitability Criteria for Construction

 

Glossary.

Index.


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