PART I: INTRODUCTIONChapter1: Introduction 31.1 Chemical and Bio-Process Control; 1.2 Everyday Examples of Process Control; 1.3 Control Diagrams and P&IDs; 1.4 Industrial Process Control Examples; 1.5 Block Diagram of a General Feedback Control System; 1.6 Types of Controllers; 1.7 Responsibilities of a Chemical Process Control Engineer; 1.8 Operator Acceptance; 1.9 Process Control and Process Optimization; 1.10 Summary

Chapter: 2 Control Loop Hardware 352.1 Introduction; 2.2 Control Systems; 2.3 Actuator Systems (Final Control Elements); 2.4 Sensor Systems; 2.5 Summary

PART II: PROCESS DYNAMICSChapter 3: Dynamic Modeling 873.1 Introduction; 3.2 Uses of Dynamic Models; 3.3 Classification of Phenomenological Models; 3.4 Dynamic Balance Equations; 3.5 Modeling Examples; 3.6 Sensor Noise; 3.7 Numerical Integration of ODEs; 3.8 Summary

Chapter 4: Laplace Transforms 1334.1 Introduction; 4.2 Laplace Transforms; 4.3 Laplace Transform Solutions of Linear Differential Equations; 4.4 Individual Real Poles; 4.5 Repeated Real Poles; 4.6 Complex Poles; 4.7 Summary

Chapter 5: Transfer Functions 1575.1 Introduction; 5.2 General Characteristics of Transfer Functions; 5.3 Poles of a Transfer Function; 5.4 Stability Analysis Using the Routh Array; 5.5 Zeros of a Transfer Function; 5.6 Block Diagrams using Transfer Functions; 5.7 Linearization of Nonlinear Differential Equations; 5.8 State Space Models; 5.9 Transfer Functions from State Space Models; 5.10 Summary

Chapter 6: Dynamic Behavior of Ideal Systems 2016.1 Introduction; 6.2 Idealized Process Inputs; 6.3 First-Order Processes; 6.4 Second-Order Processes; 6.5 Integrating Processes; 6.6 High-Order Processes; 6.7 Deadtime; 6.8 First Order Plus Deadtime (FOPDT) Model; 6.9 Inverse-Acting Processes; 6.10 Lead-Lag Element; 6.11 Recycle Processes; 6.12 Summary

PART III: PID CONTROLChapter 7: PID Control 2357.1 Introduction; 7.2 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions; 7.3 Analysis of P, I, and D Action; 7.4 Position Forms of the PID Algorithm; 7.5 Velocity Forms of the PID Algorithm; 7.6 Interactive Form of the PID Controller; 7.7 Direct- and Reverse-Acting Controllers; 7.8 Filtering of Sensor Measurements; 7.9 Controller Design Issues; 7.10 Commonly Encountered Control Loops; 7.11 Summary

Chapter 8: PID Controller Tuning 2798.1 Introduction; 8.2 Effect of Tuning Parameters on P-only Control; 8.3 Effect of Tuning Parameters on PI Control; 8.4 Effect of Tuning Parameters on PID Control; 8.5 Summary

Chapter 9: PID Controller Tuning 2979.1 Introduction; 9.2 Tuning Criteria and Performance Assessment; 9.3 Classical Tuning Methods; 9.4 Controller Tuning by Pole Placement; 9.5 PID Tuning Based on Internal Model Control (IMC); 9.6 Controller Reliability; 9.7 Selection of Tuning Criterion; 9.8 Tuning the Filter on Sensor Readings; 9.9 Recommended Approach to Controller Tuning; 9.10 Tuning Fast-Responding Control Loops; 9.11 Tuning Slow-Responding Control Loops; 9.12 PID Tuning; 9.13 Tuning Level Controllers; 9.14 Control Interval; 9.15 Summary

Chapter 10: Troubleshooting Control Loops 34310.1 Introduction; 10.2 Overall Approach to Troubleshooting; 10.3 Troubleshooting Control Loop in the CPI; 10.4 Troubleshooting Control Loop for Bio-Processes; 10.5 Summary

Chapter 11: Frequency Response Analysis 35911.1 Introduction; 11.2 Bode Plot; 11.3 Bode Stability Criterion, Gain Margin and Phase Margin; 11.4 Pulse Tests; 11.5 Nyquist Diagrams; 11.6 Closed-Loop Frequency Response; 11.7 Summary

PART IV: ADVANCED PID CONTROLChapter 12: Cascade, Ratio, and Feedforward Control 38112.1 Introduction; 12.2 Cascade Control; 12.3 Ratio Control; 12.4 Feedforward Control; 12.5 Summary

Chapter 13: PID Enhancements 40913.1 Introduction; 13.2 Inferential Control; 13.3 Scheduling Controller Tuning; 13.4 Override/Select Control; 13.5 Computed Manipulated Variable Control; 13.6 Summary

Chapter 14: PID Implementation Issues 43114.1 Introduction; 14.2 Anti-windup Strategies; 14.3 Bumpless Transfer; 14.4 Split-Range Control; 14.5 Summary

PART V: CONTROL OF MIMO PROCESSESChapter 15: PID Controllers Applied to MIMO Systems 44115.1 Introduction; 15.2 SISO Controllers and (c, y) Pairings; 15.3 Steady-State Coupling; 15.4 Dynamic Factors in Configuration Selection; 15.5 Sensitivity to Disturbances; 15.6 Tuning Decentralized Controllers; 15.7 Decouplers; 15.8 Summary

Chapter 16: Model Predictive Controller 46116.1 Introduction; 16.2 Step Response Models (SRMs); 16.3 The Dynamic Matrix; 16.4 Moving Horizon Controller; 16.5 Prediction Vector; 16.6 DMC Controller; 16.7 Extension to MIMO Processes; 16.8 Application of DMC for Constraint Control; 16.9 Combining an LP with DMC; 16.10 DMC Model Identification; 16.11 Organization of an Industrial MPC Application Project; 16.12 Summary

Chapter 17: Multi-Unit Controller Design 49117.1 Introduction; 17.2 Approach; 17.3 Distillation Column; 17.4 Recycle Reactor Process; 17.5 Summary

Chapter 18: Case Studies 50518.1 Introduction; 18.2 Heat Exchanger Control; 18.3 CSTR Temperature Control; 18.4 Distillation Control; 18.5 pH Control; 18.6 Summary

Appendix A: Answers to Self-Assessment Questions and Problems 539Appendix B: Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 559Appendix C: Pseudo-Random Number Generator 563Appendix D: Signal Filtering 565*Index 569*