Elementary Surveying:An Introduction to Geomatics: International Edition - Charles Ghilani - 9780132083072 - Civil and Environmental Engineering - Introduction to Civil Engineering - Pearson Schweiz AG - Der Fachverlag fuer Bildungsmedien - 978-0-1320-8307-2

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Elementary Surveying:An Introduction to Geomatics: International Edition

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Titel:   Elementary Surveying:An Introduction to Geomatics: International Edition
Reihe:   Prentice Hall
Autor:   Charles D. Ghilani / Paul R Wolf
Verlag:   Pearson
Einband:   Softcover
Auflage:   12
Sprache:   Englisch
Seiten:   960
Erschienen:   Januar 2008
ISBN13:   9780132083072
ISBN10:   0-13-208307-8
Status:   Der Titel ist leider nicht mehr lieferbar. Sorry, This title is no longer available. Malheureusement ce titre est épuisé.
 
Ersatztitel:
ISBNTitelAuflageEinbandErscheintVerfügbarPreis
9780133758887 Elementary Surveying 14 Hardcover 03.2014
ca. 7-9 Tage
213.10

Elementary Surveying:An Introduction to Geomatics: International Edition

Description

For Surveying courses offered in Civil Engineering departments.

 

This highly readable, best-selling text presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. Its depth and breadth are ideal for self-study. The 12th Edition is updated throughout to reflect the latest advances and technology.

 


Features

Emphasis on the theory of errors in surveying work.

- At the end of each chapter, common errors and mistakes related to the topic covered are listed to remind students to exercise caution in their work.

- Practical suggestions from the authors' years of experience are interjected throughout the text.

 

More than 400 figures and illustrations to help clarify discussions.

 

Numerous worked example problems to illustrate computational procedures.

 

•  Over 1000 end-of-chapter problems

 

Updated versions of Stats, Wolfpack, and Matrix are included on the accompanying CD.

- These programs contain options for statistical computations, traverse computations for polygon, link, and radial traverses; area calculations; astronomical azimuth reduction; two-dimensional coordinate transformations; horizontal and vertical curve computations; and least squares adjustments.

- Mathcad® worksheets and Excel® spreadsheets are included.

 

Zum Seitenanfang

New to this Edition

A new Chapter 16 on Kinematic GPS.

 

80% new and revised end-of-chapter problems 

 

Several new sections on machine control, localization of GPS surveys, and construction staking using GPS added to Chapters 15, 19, and 23.

 

Astronomical observations chapter has been reduced and moved to Appendix C - Reflects that in recent years, kinematic GPS has replaced astronomical observations for position and azimuth.

 

Emphasis on total stations as the instruments for making angle and distance observations - Provides an up-to-date presentation of surveying equipment and procedures.

 

Transits and theodolites now just briefly introduced in the main body of the text - Reflects that these are not used in practice.

 

Coverage of both automatic and digital levels for elevation determination

 

A new appendix on Introduction to Matrices - Supports the additional matrix computations introduced with least squares adjustments.

 

U.S.State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters now placed in Appendix F.

 

Solutions to Selected Problems can now be found in Appendix G.

Zum Seitenanfang

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

¿ 1.1 Definition of Surveying

¿ 1.2 Geomatics

¿ 1.3 History of Surveying

¿ 1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys

¿ 1.5 Importance of Surveying

¿ 1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys

¿ 1.7 Surveying Safety

¿ 1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems

¿ 1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies

¿ 1.10 The Surveying Profession

¿ 1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations

¿ 1.12 Surveying on the Internet

¿ 1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying

Problems

Bibliography

2 Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes

Part I ¿Units and Significant Figures

¿ 2.1 Introduction

¿ 2.2 Units of Measurement 25t

¿ 2.3 International System of Units (SI)

¿ 2.4 Significant Figures

¿ 2.5 Rounding Off Numbers

Part II ¿Field Notes

¿ 2.6 Field Notes

¿ 2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes

¿ 2.8 Types of Field Books

¿ 2.9 Kinds of Notes

¿ 2.10 Arrangements of Notes

¿ 2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes

¿ 2.12 Introduction to Data Collectors

¿ 2.13 Transfer of Files from Data Collectors

¿ 2.14 Digital Data File Management

¿ 2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Data Collectors

Problems

Bibliography

3 Theory of Errors in Observations

¿ 3.1 Introduction

¿ 3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations

¿ 3.3 Errors in Measurements

¿ 3.4 Mistakes

¿ 3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations

¿ 3.6 Types of Errors

¿ 3.7 Precision and Accuracy

¿ 3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors

¿ 3.9 Probability

¿ 3.10 Most Probable Value

¿ 3.11 Residuals

¿ 3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors

¿ 3.13 General Laws of Probability

¿ 3.14 Measures of Precision

¿ 3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation

¿ 3.16 The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors

¿ 3.17 Error Propagation

3.17.1 Error of a Sum

3.17.2 Error of a Series

3.17.3 Error in a Product

3.17.4 Error in the Mean

¿ 3.18 Applications

¿ 3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations

¿ 3.20 Weights of Observations

¿ 3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment

Problems

Bibliography

4 Leveling-Theory, Methods, and Equipment

Part I ¿Leveling-Theory and Methods

¿ 4.1 Introduction

¿ 4.2 Definitions

¿ 4.3 North American Vertical Datum

¿ 4.4 Curvature and Refraction

¿ 4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation

4.5.1 Measuring Vertical Distances by Taping or Electronic Methods

4.5.2 Differential Leveling

4.5.3 Barometric Leveling

4.5.4 Trigonometric Leveling

Part II ¿Equipment for Differential Leveling

¿ 4.6 Categories of Levels

¿ 4.7 Telescopes

¿ 4.8 Level Vials

¿ 4.9 Tilting Levels

¿ 4.10 Automatic Levels

¿ 4.11 Digital Levels

¿ 4.12 Tripods

¿ 4.13 Hand Level

¿ 4.14 Level Rods

¿ 4.15 Testing and Adjusting Levels

4.15.1 Requirements for Testing and Adjusting Instruments

4.15.2 Adjusting for Parallax

4.15.3 Testing and Adjusting Level Vials

4.15.4 Preliminary Adjustment of the Horizontal Cross Hair

4.15.5 Testing and Adjusting the Line of Sight

Problems

Bibliography

5 Leveling-Field Procedures and Computations

¿ 5.1 Introduction

¿ 5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level

¿ 5.3 Duties of a Rodperson

¿ 5.4 Differential Leveling

¿ 5.5 Precision

¿ 5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits

¿ 5.7 Reciprocal Leveling

¿ 5.8 Three-Wire Leveling

¿ 5.9 Profile Leveling

5.9.1 Staking and Stationing the Reference Line

5.9.2 Field Procedures for Profile Leveling

5.9.3 Drawing and Using the Profile

¿ 5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling

¿ 5.11 Use of the Hand Level

¿ 5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling

5.12.1 Instrumental Errors

5.12.2 Natural Errors

5.12.3 Personal Errors

¿ 5.13 Mistakes

¿ 5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

 

6 Distance Measurement

Part I ¿Methods for Measuring Distances

¿ 6.1 Introduction

¿ 6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements

¿ 6.3 Pacing

¿ 6.4 Odometer Readings

¿ 6.5 Optical Rangefinders

¿ 6.6 Tacheometry

¿ 6.7 Subtense Bar

Part II ¿Distance Measurements by Taping

¿ 6.8 Introduction to Taping

¿ 6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories

¿ 6.10 Care of Taping Equipment

¿ 6.11 Taping on Level Ground

6.11.1 Lining In

6.11.2 Applying Tension

6.11.3 Plumbing

6.11.4 Marking Tape Lengths

6.11.5 Reading the Tape

6.11.6 Recording the Distance

¿ 6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground

¿ 6.13 Slope Measurements

¿ 6.14 Sources of Error in Taping

6.14.1 Incorrect Length of Tape

6.14.2 Temperature Other Than Standard

6.14.3 Inconsistent Pull

6.14.4 Sag

6.14.5 Tape Not Horizontal and Tape Off-Line

6.14.6 Improper Plumbing

6.14.7 Faulty Marking

6.14.8 Incorrect Reading or Interpolation

6.14.9 Summary of Effects of Taping Errors

¿ 6.15 Tape Problems

¿ 6.16 Combined Corrections in a Taping Problem

Part II ¿Electronic Distance Measurement

¿ 6.17 Introduction

¿ 6.18 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy

¿ 6.19 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement

¿ 6.20 Electro-Optical Instruments

¿ 6.21 Total Station Instruments

¿ 6.22 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors

¿ 6.23 Computing Horizontal Lengths From Slope Distances

6.23.1 Reduction of Short Lines by Elevation Differences

6.23.2 Reduction of Short Lines by Zenith or Altitude Angle

¿ 6.24 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement

6.24.1 Personal Errors

6.24.2 Instrumental Errors

6.24.3 Natural Errors

Problems

Bibliography

7 Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings

¿ 7.1 Introduction

¿ 7.2 Units of Angle Measurement

¿ 7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles

¿ 7.4 Direction of a Line

¿ 7.5 Azimuths

¿ 7.6 Bearings

¿ 7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings

¿ 7.8 Computing Azimuths

¿ 7.9 Computing Bearings

¿ 7.10 The Compass and The Earth's Magnetic Field

¿ 7.11 Magnetic Declination

¿ 7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination

¿ 7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination

¿ 7.14 Local Attraction

¿ 7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems

¿ 7.16 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

8 Total Station Instruments: Angle Measurements

Part I ¿Total Station Instruments

¿ 8.1 Introduction

¿ 8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments

¿ 8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments

¿ 8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument

¿ 8.5 Handling and Setting Up a Total Station Instrument

¿ 8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments

Part II ¿Angle Measurements

¿ 8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances

¿ 8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments

¿ 8.9 Observing Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method

¿ 8.10 Closing the Horizon

¿ 8.11 Observing Deflection Angles

¿ 8.12 Observing Azimuths

¿ 8.13 Observing Vertical Angles

¿ 8.14 Sights and Marks

¿ 8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line

¿ 8.16 Balancing-In

¿ 8.17 Random Traverse

¿ 8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences

¿ 8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories

8.19.1 Adjustment of Plate-Level Vials

8.19.2 Adjustment of Tripods

8.19.3 Adjustment of Tribrachs

8.19.4 Adjustment of Optical Plummets

8.19.5 Adjustment of Circular Level Bubbles

¿ 8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work

8.20.1 Instrumental Errors

8.20.2 Natural Errors

8.20.3 Personal Errors

¿ 8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations

¿ 8.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

9 Traversing

¿ 9.1 Introduction

¿ 9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions

9.2.1 Traversing by Interior Angles

9.2.2 Traversing by Angles to the Right

9.2.3 Traversing by Deflection Angles

9.2.4 Traversing by Azimuths

¿ 9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths

¿ 9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations

¿ 9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations

¿ 9.6 Traverse Field Notes

¿ 9.7 Angle Misclosure

¿ 9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments

¿ 9.9 Radial Traversing

¿ 9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing

¿ 9.11 Mistakes in Traversing

Problems

10 Traverse Computations

¿ 10.1 Introduction

¿ 10.2 Balancing Angles

¿ 10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings

¿ 10.4 Departures and Latitudes

¿ 10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions

¿ 10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision

¿ 10.7 Traverse Adjustment

10.7.1 Compass (Bowditch) Rule

10.7.2 Least-Squares Method

¿ 10.8 Rectangular Coordinates

¿ 10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations

10.9.1 Balancing Angles by Adjusting Azimuths or Bearings

10.9.2 Balancing Departures and Latitudes by Adjusting Coordinates

¿ 10.10 Lengths and Directions of Lines from Departures and Latitudes or Coordinates

¿ 10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions

¿ 10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys

¿ 10.13 Use of Open Traverses

¿ 10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems

¿ 10.15 Traverse Computations Using Computers

¿ 10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Measurements

¿ 10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations

Problems

Bibliography

11 Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations

¿ 11.1 Introduction

¿ 11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles

¿ 11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line

¿ 11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions

¿ 11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle

¿ 11.6 Intersection of Two Circles

¿ 11.7 Three-Point Resection

¿ 11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

¿ 11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem

¿ 11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection

¿ 11.11 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

12 Area

¿ 12.1 Introduction

¿ 12.2 Methods of Measuring Area

¿ 12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures

¿ 12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines

12.4.1 Regularly Spaced Offsets

12.4.2 Irregularly Spaced Offsets

¿ 12.5 Area by Coordinates

¿ 12.6 Area by Double Meridian Distance Method

¿ 12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries

¿ 12.8 Partitioning of Lands

12.8.1 Trial and Error Method

12.8.2 Use of Simple Geometric Figures

12.8.3 Coordinate Method

¿ 12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps

12.9.1 Area by Counting Coordinate Squares

12.9.2 Area by Scaled Lengths

12.9.3 Area by Digitizing Coordinates

12.9.4 Area by Planimeter

¿ 12.10 Sources of Error in Determining Areas

¿ 12.11 Mistakes in Determining Areas

Problems

Bibliography

13 The Global Positioning System-Introduction and Principles of Operation

¿ 13.1 Introduction

¿ 13.2 Overview of GPS

¿ 13.3 The GPS Signal

¿ 13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems for GPS

13.4.1 The Satellite Reference Coordinate System

13.4.2 The Geocentric Coordinate System

13.4.3 The Geodetic Coordinate System

¿ 13.5 Fundamentals of GPS Positioning

13.5.1 Code Ranging

13.5.2 Carrier Phase-Shift Measurements

¿ 13.6 Errors in GPS Observations

13.6.1 Clock Bias

13.6.2 Refraction

13.6.3 Other Error Sources

13.6.4 Geometry of Observed Satellites

13.6.5 Selective Availability

¿ 13.7 Differential GPS

¿ 13.8 Kinematic GPS Methods

¿ 13.9 Relative Positioning

13.9.1 Single Differencing

13.9.2 Double Differencing

13.9.3 Triple Differencing

¿ 13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems

13.10.1 The GLONASS Constellation

13.10.2 Galileo System

13.10.3 Compass

¿ 13.11 The Future

Problems

Bibliography

14 The Global Positioning System-Static surveys

¿ 14.1 Introduction

¿ 14.2 Field Procedures in GPS Surveys

14.2.1 Static Relative Positioning

14.2.2 Rapid Static Relative Positioning

14.2.3 Pseudokinematic Surveys

14.2.4 Kinematic Surveys

¿ 14.3 Planning GPS Surveys

14.3.1 Preliminary Considerations

14.3.2 Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method

14.3.3 Field Reconnaissance

14.3.4 Developing an Observation Scheme

14.3.5 Availability of Reference Stations

¿ 14.4 Performing Static GPS Surveys

¿ 14.5 Data Processing and Analysis

14.5.1 Specifications for GPS Surveys

14.5.2 Analysis of Fixed Baseline Measurements

14.5.3 Analysis of Repeat Baseline Measurements

14.5.4 Analysis of Loop Closures

14.5.5 Baseline Network Adjustment

14.5.6 The Survey Report

¿ 14.6 Sources of Errors in GPS Work

14.6.1 Instrumental Errors

14.6.2 Natural Errors

14.6.3 Personal Errors

¿ 14.7 Mistakes in GPS Work

¿ 14.8 Future Outlook for GPS

Problems

Bibliography

15 The Global Positioning System-Kinematic GPS

¿ 15.1 Introduction

¿ 15.2 Initialization

¿ 15.3 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.4 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.5 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.6 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.7 Real-Time Networks

¿ 15.8 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.9 Machine Control

¿ 15.10 Errors in Kinematic Surveys

¿ 15.11 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys

Problems

Bibliography

16 Adjustments by Least Squares

¿ 16.1 Introduction

¿ 16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares

¿ 16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method

¿ 16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment  

¿ 16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities

¿ 16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits

¿ 16.7 Propagation of Errors

¿ 16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment of GPS Baseline Vectors

¿ 16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Traditional Horizontal Plane Surveys

16.9.1 Linearizing Nonlinear Equations

16.9.2 The Distance Observation Equation

16.9.3 The Azimuth Observation Equation

16.9.4 The Angle Observation Equation

16.9.5 A Traverse Example Using WOLFPACK

¿ 16.10 Error Ellipses

¿ 16.11 Adjustment Procedures

¿ 16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations

¿ 16.13 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

17 Mapping Surveys

¿ 17.1 Introduction

¿ 17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys

¿ 17.3 Map Scale

¿ 17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys

¿ 17.5 Contours

¿ 17.6 Characteristics of Contours

¿ 17.7 Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours

17.7.1 Direct Method

17.7.2 Indirect Method

¿ 17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems

¿ 17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details

17.9.1 Radiation by Total Station

17.9.2 Radiation by Stadia

17.9.3 Coordinate Squares or “Grid” Method

17.9.4 Offsets from a Reference Line

17.9.5 Topographic Detailing with GPS

17.9.6 Laser-Scanning

¿ 17.10 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

¿ 17.11 Selection of Field Method

¿ 17.12 Working with Data Collectors and Field-to-Finish Software

¿ 17.13 Hydrographic Surveys

17.13.1 Equipment for Making Soundings

17.13.2 Locating Soundings

17.13.3 Hydrographic Mapping

¿ 17.14 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys

¿ 17.15 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys

Problems

Bibliography

18 Mapping

¿ 18.1 Introduction

¿ 18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information

¿ 18.3 National Mapping Program

¿ 18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping

¿ 18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures

¿ 18.6 Map Design

¿ 18.7 Map Layout

¿ 18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures

18.8.1 Manually Plotting by Coordinates

18.8.2 Plotting Using CADD

¿ 18.9 Contour Interval

¿ 18.10 Plotting Contours

¿ 18.11 Lettering

¿ 18.12 Cartographic Map Elements

¿ 18.13 Drafting Materials

¿ 18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems

¿ 18.15 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping

¿ 18.16 Sources of Error in Mapping

¿ 18.17 Mistakes in Mapping

Problems

Bibliography

19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions

¿ 19.1 Introduction

¿ 19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid

¿ 19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole

¿ 19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature

¿ 19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of The Vertical

¿ 19.6 U.S. Reference Frames

19.6.1 North American Horizontal Datum of 1927 (NAD27)

19.6.2 North American Horizontal Datum of 1983 (NAD83)

19.6.3 Later Versions of NAD83

19.6.4 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)

19.6.5 North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)

19.6.6 Transforming Coordinates between Reference Frames

¿ 19.7 Accuracy Standards and Specifications For Control Surveys

¿ 19.8 The National Spatial Reference System

¿ 19.9 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network

¿ 19.10 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network

¿ 19.11 Control Point Descriptions

¿ 19.12 Field Procedures For Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys

19.12.1 Triangulation

19.12.2 Precise Traverse

19.12.3 Trilateration

19.12.4 Combined Networks

¿ 19.13 Field Procedures for Vertical Control Surveys

¿ 19.14 Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values

19.14.1 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Elevations

19.14.2 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Vertical Angles

19.14.3 Reduction of Directions and Angles

19.14.4 Leveling and Orthometric Heights

¿ 19.15 Geodetic Position Computations

19.15.1 Direct Geodetic Problem

19.15.2 Inverse Geodetic Problem

¿ 19.16 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System

¿ 19.17 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations

¿ 19.18 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

20 State Plane Coordinates

¿ 20.1 Introduction

¿ 20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems

¿ 20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

¿ 20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection

¿ 20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83

¿ 20.6 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System

20.6.1 Zone Constants

20.6.2 The Direct Problem

20.6.3 The Inverse Problem

¿ 20.7 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System

20.7.1 Zone Constants

20.7.2 The Direct Problem

20.7.2 The Inverse Problem

¿ 20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids

20.8.1 Grid Reduction of Distances

20.8.2 Grid Reduction of Azimuths and Angles

¿ 20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations

¿ 20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another

¿ 20.11 Conversions between SPCS27 and SPCS83

¿ 20.12 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection

¿ 20.13 Other Map Projections

20.13.1 Oblique Stereographic Map Projection

20.13.2 Oblique Mercator Map Projection

Problems

Bibliography

21 Boundary Surveys

¿ 21.1 Introduction

¿ 21.2 Categories of Land Surveys

¿ 21.3 Historical Perspectives

¿ 21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds

¿ 21.5 Property Description by Block and Lot System

¿ 21.6 Property Description by Coordinates

¿ 21.7 Retracement Surveys

¿ 21.8 Subdivision Surveys

¿ 21.9 Partitioning Land

¿ 21.10 Registration of Title

¿ 21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements

¿ 21.12 Condominium Surveys

¿ 21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems

¿ 21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys

¿ 21.15 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

22 Surveys of the Public Lands

¿ 22.1 Introduction

¿ 22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands

¿ 22.3 Initial Point

¿ 22.4 Principal Meridian

¿ 22.5 Baseline

¿ 22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)

¿ 22.7 Guide Meridians

¿ 22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines

¿ 22.9 Designation of Townships

¿ 22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle Into Townships

¿ 22.11 Subdivision of a Township Into Sections

¿ 22.12 Subdivision of Sections

¿ 22.13 Fractional Sections

¿ 22.14 Notes

¿ 22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps

¿ 22.16 Marking Corners

¿ 22.17 Witness Corners

¿ 22.18 Meander Corners

¿ 22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners

¿ 22.20 Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys

¿ 22.21 Descriptions by Township Section and Smaller Subdivision

¿ 22.22 BLM Land Information System

¿ 22.23 Sources of Error

¿ 22.24 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

23 Construction Surveys

¿ 23.1 Introduction

¿ 23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys

23.2.1 Visible Laser-Beam Instruments

23.2.2 Reflectorless Total Stations

¿ 23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control

¿ 23.4 Staking Out A Pipeline

¿ 23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades

¿ 23.6 Staking Out a Building

¿ 23.7 Staking Out Highways

¿ 23.8 Other Construction Surveys

¿ 23.9 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments

¿ 23.10 Construction Surveys Using GPS Equipment

¿ 23.11 Machine Control

¿ 23.12 As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning

¿ 23.13 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys

¿ 23.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

24 Horizontal Curves

¿ 24.1 Introduction

¿ 24.2 Degree of Circular Curve

¿ 24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas

¿ 24.4 Circular Curve Stationing

¿ 24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles

¿ 24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords

¿ 24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

¿ 24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

¿ 24.9 Setups on Curve

¿ 24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

¿ 24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords

¿ 24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve

¿ 24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates

¿ 24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GPS and Robotic Total Stations

¿ 24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets

¿ 24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems

24.16.1 Passing a Circular Curve through a Fixed Point

24.16.2 Intersection of a Circular Curve and a Straight Line

24.16.3 Intersection of Two Circular Curves

¿ 24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves

¿ 24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves

¿ 24.19 Spirals

24.19.1 Spiral Geometry

24.19.2 Spiral Calculation and Layout

¿ 24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments

¿ 24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves

¿ 24.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

25 Vertical Curves

¿ 25.1 Introduction

¿ 25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve

¿ 25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve

¿ 25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve

¿ 25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation

25.5.1 Example Computations Using the English System of Units

25.5.2 Example Computations Using the Metric System

¿ 25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola

¿ 25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion

¿ 25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve

¿ 25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations

¿ 25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve

¿ 25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass through a Fixed Point

¿ 25.12 Sight Distance

¿ 25.13 Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves

¿ 25.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

26 Volumes

¿ 26.1 Introduction

¿ 26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement

¿ 26.3 The Cross-Section Method

¿ 26.4 Types of Cross Sections

¿ 26.5 Average End Area Formula

¿ 26.6 Determining End Areas

26.6.1 End Areas by Simple Figures

26.6.2 End Areas by Coordinates

¿ 26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts

¿ 26.8 Prismoidal Formula

¿ 26.9 Volume Computations

¿ 26.10 Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method

¿ 26.11 Contour-Area Method

¿ 26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge

¿ 26.13 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes

¿ 26.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

27 Photogrammetry

¿ 27.1 Introduction

¿ 27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry

¿ 27.3 Aerial Cameras

¿ 27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs

¿ 27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs

¿ 27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph

¿ 27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph

¿ 27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph

¿ 27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph

¿ 27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax

¿ 27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing

¿ 27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax

¿ 27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry

¿ 27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments

27.14.1 Direct Optical Projection Stereoplotters

27.14.2 Mechanical Projection Stereoplotters

27.14.3 Analytical Stereoplotters

27.14.4 Softcopy Stereoplotters

¿ 27.15 Orthophotos

¿ 27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry

¿ 27.17 Flight Planning

¿ 27.19 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems

¿ 27.20 Remote Sensing

¿ 27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry

¿ 27.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

28 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

¿ 28.1 Introduction

¿ 28.2 Land Information Systems

¿ 28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications

¿ 28.4 Spatial Data

28.4.1 Simple Spatial Objects

28.4.2 Vector and Raster Formats

28.4.3 Topology

¿ 28.5 Nonspatial Data

¿ 28.6 Data Format Conversions

28.6.1 Vector-to-Raster Conversion

28.6.2 Raster-to-Vector Conversion

¿ 28.7 Creating GIS Databases

28.7.1 Generating Digital Data from Field Surveys

28.7.2 Digitizing from Aerial Photos with Stereoplotters

28.7.3 Digitizing Existing Graphic Materials

29.7.4 Keyboard Entry

29.7.5 Existing Digital Data Sets

29.7.6 Scanning

¿ 28.8 Metadata

¿ 28.9 GIS Analytical Functions

28.9.1 Proximity Analysis

28.9.2 Boundary Operations

28.9.3 Spatial Joins

28.9.4 Logical Operations

28.9.5 Other GIS Functions

¿ 28.10 GIS Applications

Problems

Bibliography

A Dumpy Levels, Transits, and Theodolites

¿ A.1 Introduction

¿ A.2 The Dumpy Level

¿ A.3 Introduction to the Transit and Theodolite

¿ A.4 The Transit

A.4.1 Parts of a Transit

A.4.2 Circle Scales and Verniers

A.4.3 Properties of the Transit

A.4.4 Handling, Setting up, and using a Transit

¿ A.5 The Theodolite

A.5.1 Characteristics of Theodolites

A.5.2 Repeating Theodolites

A.5.3 Directional Theodolites

A.5.4 Handling, Setting Up, and Using a Theodolite

B Example Noteforms

C Astronomical Observations

¿ C.1 Introduction

¿ C.2 Overview of Usual Procedures for Astronomical Azimuth Determination

¿ C.3 Ephemerides

¿ C.4 Definitions

¿ C.5 Time

¿ C.6 Timing Observations

¿ C.7 Computations for Azimuth from Polaris Observations by the Hour Angle Method

¿ C.8 Azimuth from Solar Observations

D Using the Worksheets on the Companion Disk

¿ D.1 Introduction

¿ D.2 Using the Files

¿ D.3 Using the Worksheets as an Aid in Learning

E Introduction to Matrices

¿ E.1 Introduction

¿ E.2 Definition of a Matrix

¿ E.3 The Dimensions of a Marix

¿ E.4 The Transpose of a Matrix

¿ E.5 Matrix Addition

¿ E.6 Matrix Multiplication

¿ E.7 Matrix Inverse

F U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters

¿ F.1 Introduction

¿ F.2 Defining Parameters for States Using the Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection

¿ F.3 Defining Parameters for States Using the Transverse Mercator Map Projection

G Answers to Selected Problems

Index

 

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Back Cover

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING:

An Introduction to Geomatics

Twelfth Edition

Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R.Wolf

 

 

"The material in the text is accurate and current. It is refreshing to have access to a textbook that is current with technological advances. The topice covered were covered well and organized effectively." - MARLEE A. WALTON, IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

 

"It is a good beginning/intermediate text on surveying. I like the GPS-related chapters. Good job." - DOUGLAS E. SMITH, MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY

 

" Elementary Surveying is a great textbook for teaching, but it is also a great reference book for surveyors, engineers, and contractors." - CRAIG S. MOORE, VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY

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