(NOTE: Most chapters begin with Chapter Outline, Chapter Objectives, and Introduction sections and conclude with a Summary and Questions for Review section.)
1. The Research EnterpriseIn Criminal Justice and Criminology: Theory and Research.
Overview of the Research Process and Statistical Analysis.
The Research Enterprise.
Steps to Conduct Research in Criminal Justice.
Data Collection Methods.
Presentation of Findings.
Pure and Applied Research.
Some Basic Assumptions About Criminal Justice and Criminology.
Why Do Research?
The Emergence of Science and Criminal Justice.
The Probability Nature of Science.
Objectivity in Scientific Research.
Functions of Research.
Assumptions, Propositions, and Definitions.
Explanation and Prediction.
Types of Theory.
Variables and Theory.
The Complementarity of Theory and Research.
Hypotheses and Theory: A Preliminary View.
The Value of Theory.
The Value of Research.
2. Frames of Reference and Problem Formulation.
What Are Frames of Reference?
Choosing a Frame of Reference.
Values and Frames of Reference.
Are Frames of Reference Used in All Social Research?
Frames of Reference and Theory.
Deciding What to Study: Topics of Investigation for Criminal Justice and Criminology.
Reviewing the Literature.
Sources for Literature Reviews.
Investigations from a Distance.
The Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey.
Issues in Formulating Research Problems.
3. Research Designs.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research.
Research Objectives and Designs.
Exploration and Exploratory Objectives.
Description and Descriptive Objectives.
Experimentation and Experimental Objectives.
Some Conventional Research Designs.
Comparison of Surveys and Case Studies.
Classical Experimental Design.
Experimental and Control Groups.
Equivalent Groups and Establishing Equivalence.
Pretests and Posttests.
Variations in the Classical Experimental Design.
The After-Only Design.
The Before-After Design.
True Experiments and Quasi-Experiments.
Time-Series and Multiple Time-Series Designs.
Internal and External Validity.
Internal Validity and Threats.
External Validity and Threats.
4. Sampling Techniques, Purposes, And Problems.
What is Sampling?
Populations and Parameters.
Samples and Statistics.
Generalizability and Representativeness.
The Decision to Sample.
Size of the Target Population.
Cost of Obtaining the Elements.
Convenience and Accessibility of the Elements.
Some Functions of Sampling.
Meeting Assumptions of Statistical Tests.
Meeting the Requirements of Experiments.
Probability Sampling Plans.
Simple Random Sampling and Random Numbers Tables.
Stratified Random Sampling.
Area, Cluster, or Multistage Sampling.
Nonprobability Sampling Plans.
Purposive or Judgmental Sampling.
Snowball Sampling and the Use of Informants.
Dense and Saturation Sampling.
Types of Sampling Situations.
Two- and k-Sample Situations.
Some Selected Sampling Problems.
Determining Sample Size.
Nonresponse and What to Do About It/
Is the Sample Representative? Uncertainty about Representativeness.
Sampling and Statistical Analysis.
Ideal and Real Sampling Considerations.
Potentates: Juveniles, Prisoners, and Permission to Sample Special Populations of Subjects.
5. Questionnaires: Construction, Application, and Issues.
Questionnaires in Criminal Justice Research.
Functions of Questionnaires.
Types of Questionnaires.
Combinations of Fixed-Response and Open-Ended Items.
Comparison of Fixed-Response and Open-Ended Items.
Face-to-Face Questionnaire Administration.
Comparison of Mailed Questionnaires with Face-to-Face Questionnaire Administration.
Selecting and Ordering the Questionnaire Items.
Response and Nouresponse: Some Considerations.
Questionnaire Content and Wording: Possible Sources of Bias.
The Use of Certain Key Words.
How Do You Know that Respondents Tell the Truth? The Lie Factor.
Cultural Values and Questionnaire Wording.
What about Nonresponse?
6. Interviewing: Types, Applications, and Issues.
Interviews as instruments in Criminal Justice Research.
Interviews Contrasted with Questionnaires.
Types of Interviews.
Structured Interviews and the Focused Interview.
Functions of Interviewing.
Gaining Access to Organizations.
Arranging the Interview.
Training and Orientation for Interviewers.
What Makes a Good Interviewer? Personality Factors.
The Use of Lie Detectors and Polygraph Tests.
Interviewing May Be Dangerous.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviews in Criminal Justice Research.
7. Observation and the Use of Secondary Sources: Types, Applications, and Issues.
What is Observation?
Major Purposes of Observation.
Types of Observation.
Nonparticipant Observation and Unobtrusive Observation.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation in Criminological Research.
Impact of the Observer on the Observed.
Impact of the Observed on the Observer.
Analysis of Secondary Sources.
The Major Features of Secondary Sources.
Types of Secondary Sources.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Sources.
Some Examples of Content Analysis.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis.
Official and Criminal Justice Agency Records.
Canned Data Sets.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Meta-Analysis.
8. The Measurement of Variables in Criminal Justice and Criminology: Scaling, Applications, and Issues.
Measurement of Variables In Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Functions of Measurement.
Conceptualizations of Social and Psychological Phenomena.
Rendering Data Amenable to Statistical Treatment.
Assisting in Hypothesis Testing and Theory Verification.
Differentiating between People According to Properties They Possess.
Hypotheses: Operationalizing Variables.
Nominal and Operational Definitions.
Levels of Measurement.
Nominal Level of Measurement.
Ordinal Level of Measurement.
Interval Level of Measurement.
Ratio Level of Measurement.
Types of Scaling Procedures for Measuring Variables.
Thurstone Scales and Equal-Appearing Intervals.
Other Types of Scaling Procedures.
The Semenatic Differential.
The Sellin-Wolfgang Crime Severity Index.
The Salient Factor Score (SFS 81).
Greenwood's Rand Seven-Factor Index.
Some Issues of Measurement.
Social Desirability as a Contaminating Factor.
Response Sets and Validity.
The Level of Measurement-Statistical Choices Relation.
9. Validity and Reliability of Measures.
Types of Validity.
Why Is It lmportant to Have Reliable Measures?
Types of Reliability.
Internal Reliability Checks.
External Reliability Checks.
Some Functional Relationships between Validity and Reliability.
Factors that Affect Validity and Reliability.
The Instrument and Its Contents.
Testing (Pre-Test) Effect.
Diffusion of Treatment with Control and Experimental Groups.
10. Data Coding, Presentation and Description.
Verification and Cleaning Data.
Simple Data Presentation.
Measurement of Crime and Crime Rates.
Functions of Graphic Presentation.
Types of Graphic Presentation.
Tabular Presentation and Crosstabulation.
Tables and How to Read Them.
Other Forms of Tabular Presentation.
Deciding How Best to Present Your Information.
11. Hypotheses, Hypothesis Testing, and Theory Verification: Interpreting Information and Examining Issues.
Hypotheses and Theory.
Deriving Hypotheses from Theory.
Types of Hypotheses, Hypothesis Construction, and Hypothesis Sets.
Where do Hypotheses Come From?
Hypothesis Formulation: Good, Better, and Best.
Functions of Hypotheses.
Single-Variable, Two-Variable, and K -Variable Hypotheses.
Interpreting the Results of Hypothesis Tests.
Data Collection Procedures as a Consideration.
Participant Observation as a Consideration.
12. Ethical Issues In Research.
Ethical Practices in Criminal Justice Organizations Distinguished from Ethical Dilemmas in Research.
Ethics and Social Responsibility.
Ethics and Criminological Research.
Types of Ethical Problems in Research.
Fraudulent Research and Statistical Manipulation.
Research Potentially Harmful to Human Subjects.
Deception: Lying to Respondents.
Accessing Confidential Records and Information.
Sex Offenders: Sexual Histories and Stimulus-Response Experiments.
Granting Permission to Study Subordinates, Potentates, and Juveniles.
The Nuremberg Code.
Professional Associations and the Development of Ethical Standards for Research.
University Guidelines for Research Projects: The Use of Human Subjects.
Sponsored Research and Investigator Interests: Choice or Chance?
Rights of Human Subjects.
Informed Consent and How Personal Information Will Be Used.
APPENDIX A: WRITING PAPERS AND RESEARCH REPORTS.
Types of Papers and Research Reports.
Reviews of the Literature.
Critical Essays and Position Papers.
Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations.
A Thesis/Dissertation Proposal Outline.
Sources for References.
Legal Research in Criminal Justice.
U.S. Supreme Court Decisions.
Lower Federal Court Opinions.
State Supreme Court Decisions.