Classroom Assessment:Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction - James McMillan - 9780205485840 - Psychology - Educational Psychology - Pearson Schweiz AG - Der Fachverlag fuer Bildungsmedien - 978-0-2054-8584-0

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Classroom Assessment:Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction

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Titel:   Classroom Assessment:Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction
Reihe:   Allyn & Bacon
Autor:   James H. McMillan
Verlag:   Pearson
Einband:   Softcover
Auflage:   4
Sprache:   Englisch
Seiten:   464
Erschienen:   September 2006
ISBN13:   9780205485840
ISBN10:   0-20548-584-7
Status:   Der Titel ist leider nicht mehr lieferbar. Sorry, This title is no longer available. Malheureusement ce titre est épuisé.
 
Ersatztitel:
ISBNTitelAuflageEinbandErscheintVerfügbarPreis
9781292021324 Classroom Assessment: Pearson New International Edition:Principles andPractice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction 5 Softcover 09.2013
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Classroom Assessment:Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction

Description

This text provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments.

 

The text emphasizes assessment in the context of the realities of teaching and teacher decision-making in an era of standards-based education. Assessment methods are integrated with instruction and presented according to when teachers evaluate students (before, during, and after an instructional unit), the learning targets that are measured, and standards emphasized in state-wide testing. There is considerable emphasis on the nature of learning targets and how different assessments are most appropriate for different targets. For each assessment technique, suggestions for effective practice are presented with examples, case studies, and teacher interviews. This edition includes additional emphasis on formative assessment for student learning.

 

There are separate chapters on contemporary assessment techniques and issues, such as performance and portfolio assessments, as well as separate chapters on assessing affective targets and students with disabilities included in the regular classroom. A balance is provided with traditional forms of assessment and the need for teachers to administer, interpret, and use results from standards-based large scale assessments and other standardized tests.


Features

  • Uses a friendly, non-technical, easy-to-understand writing style.
  • Organized by what teachers actually do so that the sequence of chapters reflects the steps teachers take in using assessment as part of instruction.
  • Provides strong pedagogical aids, including chapter-opening concept maps; teacher quotes; chapter summaries; suggestions for conducting action research; self-instructional review exercises with answers; and examples, diagrams, charts, and tables.
  • “Case Studies for Reflection” within each chapter provide application and stimuli for discussion.  An emphasis on the “deep understanding” concept allows for a better distinction between simple understanding and richer, more sophisticated understanding.
  • Emphasizes how student involvement in assessment can promote more effective learning (Ch. 2 & 5).
  • Expanded discussion of the influence of state-mandated, high-stakes testing is integrated throughout most chapters, illustrating how this current issue affects classroom assessment.
  • Includes summaries of revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Ch. 2, 6 & 7) which provides current information on how to develop learning targets.
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New to this Edition

  • Features“Teacher's Corner” segments that show how actual teachers apply principles in their classrooms so that students can readily transfer lessons to actions.
  • Provides expanded coverage of formative assessment and the concept of alignment of classroom assessments with large-scale assessments and standards to meet current classroom needs.
  • Provides more comprehensive coverage of large-scale testing for accountability and the role of state standards in influencing classroom assessment.
  • Places greater emphasis on the construction and use of multiple choice items that are most often used by teachers.
  • Emphasizes the difference between assessment of learning and assessment for learning to illustrate how assessment affects lessons and daily activity.
  • Includes new and extensive treatment of the role of student motivation and the effect of feedback and praise on motivation.
  • Thoroughly describes online assessment resources for both students and instructors.
  • Instructor's Manual/Test Bank is available online by contacting your local representative.
  •       Companion Website with additional resources for students such as practice assessments is available online at www.ablongman.com/mcmillanassessment4e.
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Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with “Summary,” “Self- Instructional Review Exercises,” “Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises,” and “Suggestions for Action-Research.”

 

1. The Role of Assessment in Teaching.

 

Integrating Instruction and Assessment.

The Realities of Teaching.

Instructional Decision-Making and Assessment.


What Is Classroom Assessment?

Purpose.

Measurement

Evaluation.

Use.


Research on Learning, Motivation, Instruction, and Curriculum: Implications for Assessment.

Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment.

 

Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices Decision-Making.


Assessment Standards for Teachers.

2. Establishing Learning Targets.

 

What Are Learning Targets?

Educational Goals.

Objectives.

Standards-Based Education.

Criteria.

Expectations.

Learning Targets.


Types of Learning Targets.

Knowledge and Simple Understanding Learning Targets.

Deep Understanding and Reasoning Learning Targets.

Skill Learning Targets.

 Product Learning Targets.

Affective Learning Targets.


Sources of Learning Targets.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Objectives. 

Professional Preparation.

Textbooks.

Existing Lists of Objectives.

National Standards.


Criteria for Selecting Learning Targets.


3. Establishing High Quality Classroom Assessments.

 

What Is High Quality Classroom Assessment?

Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets.

Appropriateness of Assessment Methods.

Types of Assessment Methods.

Matching Targets with Methods.


Validity.

What Is a Valid Assessment?

How Is Validity Determined?


Reliability.

What is a Reliable Score?

Assessment Error.

How is Reliability Determined?

Sources of Reliability.

Evidence Based on Stability. 

Evidence Based on  Equivalent Forms. 

Evidence Based on Internal Consistency.

Evidence Based on Decision Consistency.

Factors Influencing Reliablity Estimates.

Fairness.

Student Knowledge of Learning Tasks and Assessments. Opportunity to Learn. Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills. Avoiding Stereotypes. Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks and Procedures. Accommodating Special Needs.


Positive Consequences.

Positive Consequences on Students. Positive Consequences on Teachers.


Practicality and Efficiency.

Teacher Familiarity with the Method.

Time Required.

Complexity of Administration.

Ease of Scoring.

Ease of Interpretation.

Cost.

 

4. Assessment Prior to Instruction.

Before School Begins: Learning About Your Students.

School Records.

Norm-Referenced Standardized Test Scores.


After the First Week: Now What Do You Know about Your Students?

Informal Observation.

Structured Exercises.

Pretests.


Teacher Expectations.

High Quality Pre-Instructional Assessment.

Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets.

Appropriateness of Assessment Methods.

Validity.

Reliability.

Fairness.

Positive Consequences.

Practicality and Efficiency.

 

5. Assessing Student Progress during Instruction.

 

Formative and Summative Assessment.

Informal Observation.

Assessing Nonverbal Behavior. 

Facial Expressions.  Body Language.  Gestures.

Assessing Voice-Related Cues.

Sources of Error in Informal Observation.


Using Oral Questions to Assess Student Progress.

Purposes of Questions.

Characteristics of Effective

Questioning to Assess Student Progress.

 

Using Homework, In-Class Assignments, and Quizzes.

Homework

In-Class Assignments

Quizzes


Providing Feedback and Praise.

Characteristics of Effective Feedback.

Characteristics of Effective Praise.

 

Student Self-Assessment.

 

6. Completion, Short Answer, and Selected-Response Items: Assessing Knowledge and Simple Understanding.

 

Preparing for Summative Assessment.

Representative Sampling.

Length and Number of Assessments.

Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook and Test Publishers.

Preparing Students for Summative Assessments.

Scheduling the Summative Assessment.

When Summative Assessments Should Be Constructed.


Types of Knowledge and Simple Understanding Targets.

Knowledge Representation. Declarative Knowledge and Understanding. Procedural Knowledge and Understanding.


Assessing Knowledge.

Completion and Short-Answer Items.

Matching Items.

True-False and Other Binary-Choice Items.

Multiple-Choice Items.


Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application.

Assessing Comprehension.

Assessing Application.


Putting Tests Together.

Preparing Test Directions.

Arranging Items.

Physical Layout of the Test.

 

7. Selected-Response, Short-Answer, and Essay Items: Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning

 

What is Deep Understanding?

 

What Are Reasoning Skills?

Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain

Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

Ennis's Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities

Quellmatz and Hoskyn's Framework for Reasoning Strategies

 

Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning

Short-Answer and Selected-Response Items

Essay Items


8. Performance Assessment: Assessing Deep Understanding, Reasoning, and Skill.

What Is Performance-Based Assessment?


Strengths and Limitations of Performance Assessments

 

Learning Targets for Performance Assessments

Deep Understanding

Resoning

Kills

Products


Constructing Performance Tasks.

Restricted- and Extended-Type Performance Tasks.

Performance Task Descriptions and Contexts.

Performance Task Question or Prompt.


Criteria and Rubrics.

Performance Criteria.

Rating Scales.

Rubrics.

 

9. Portfolios: Assessing Understanding, Reasoning, Skills, and Products.

 

What Are Portfolios?

Advantages.

Disadvantages.


Planning for Portfolio Assessment.

Purpose.

Identify Physical Structure.

Determine Sources of Content.

Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines and Scoring Criteria.


Implementing Portfolio Assessment.

Review with Students.

Supplying Portfolio Content.

Student Self-Evaluations.

Teacher Evaluation.

Student-Teacher Conferences.

 

10. Assessing Affective Traits and Dispositions.

 

Are Affective Targets Important?


What Are Affective Traits and Learning Targets?

Attitude Targets.

Value Targets.

Motivation Targets.

Academic Self-Concept Targets.

Social Relationship Targets.

Classroom Environment Targets.

Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.


Methods of Assessing Affective Targets.

Teacher Observation.

Student Self-Report. Peer Ratings.

Which Method or Combination of Methods Should I Use?

Assuring Anonymity.

 

11. Assessing Students With Special Needs in Inclusive Settings.

 

Legal Mandates.


Assessing Students for Identification.

Steps Prior to Identification.

Identification.

Limited -English-Proficient Students.


Assessment Problems Encountered by Students with Special Needs.

Comprehension Difficulties.

Auditory Difficulties.

Visual Difficulties.

Time Constraint Difficulties.

Anxiety.

Embarrassment.

Variability of Behavior.


Assessment Accommodations.

Adaptations in Test Directions and Construction.

Adaptations in Test Administration.

Adaptations in Testing Site.

Grading Accommodations.

Reporting Accommodations.


12. Grading and Reporting Student Performance.

 

Teachers' Judgments in Grading.

Functions of Marking and Grading

Providing Feedback

Incorporating Factors Other Than Performance

Basis of Comparison

Motivation

 

Approaches to Marking and Grading

Letter Grades

Percentage Correct

Pass-Fail

Checklists

Standards-Based

Written Descriptions


Determining Report Card Grades.

Select What to Include in the Final Grade.

Select Weights for Each Assessment.

Combining Different Scores and Grades.

Suggestions for Fair Grading.

 

Reporting Student Progress to Parents.

Report Cards.

Written Information.

Parent-Teacher Conferences.

Student-Led Conferences.

 

13. Administering and Interpreting Standardized Tests.

 

Fundamental Descriptive Statistics.

Frequency Distributions.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Measures of Variability.

Measures of Relationship.

Standard Scores.

Grade Equivalents.


Types of Derived Standardized Test Scores.

Standard Scores.

Grade Equivalent Scores.

 

Interpretating Standardized Tests.

Standard Error Measurement. 

Interpretating of Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests.

Criterion-Referenced Interpretations.


Understanding Standardized Test Score Reports.


Interpreting Test Reports for Parents.


Preparing Students for Taking Standardized Tests.

 

Administering Standardized Tests.

 

References.

Appendix A: National Content Standards Projects.

Appendix B: The Scope of Teachers' Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment.

Appendix C: Software Packages for Grading and Item Banking.

Appendix D: Glossary.

Index.

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Back Cover

“The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment, has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field.”

-Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University

Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments. The text emphasizes assessment in the context of the realities of teaching and teacher decision-making in an era of standards-based education. Assessment methods are integrated with instruction and presented according to when teachers evaluate students (before, during, and after an instructional unit), the learning targets that are measured, and standards emphasized in state-wide testing. There is considerable emphasis on the nature of learning targets and how different assessments are most appropriate for different targets. For each assessment technique, suggestions for effective practice are presented with examples, case studies, and teacher interviews.

New to This Edition

  • Shows through “Teacher's Corner” segments how actual teachers apply principles in their classrooms so that students can readily transfer lessons to actions
  • Provides expanded coverage of formative assessment and the concept of alignment of classroom assessments with large-scale assessments and standards to meet current classroom needs
  • Gives more comprehensive coverage of large-scale testing for accountability and the role of state standards in influencing classroom assessment
  • Emphasizes the difference between assessment of learning and assessment for learning to illustrate how assessment affects lessons and daily activity
  • Includes new and extensive treatment of the role of student motivation and the effect of feedback and praise on motivation
  • Has an Instructor's Manual/Test Bank and Companion Website with additional resources available online by contacting your local representative

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