This text is designed for the Critical Thinking and Logic courses found in philosophy and general education departments at both universities and colleges.
The most unique feature of the text is its solid foundation in logic. The discussion of fallacies is integrated with logic in a way not seen in other texts. This treatment provides students with tools to evaluate their own and other peoples thinking logically as well as analyze and assess an argument.
- Shorter chapter openers to be used as learning objectives.
- Introduced more fallacies in Part I - expanded in later chapters.
- Reduced chapters to 14 from original 15.
- Eliminated old Chapters 10 (Arguing in a Circle) and 11 (Arguments from Authority) - distributed pertinent material throughout text.
- Reduced Chapter 8 and renamed Term Logic.
- NEW - Chapter 9 devoted to Predicate Logic.
- Expanded discussion on inductive and deductive reasoning (Chapter 10).
- Added discussion on elements of probability (Chapter 10).
- NEW - section on Causal Reasoning (Chapter 10).
- NEW - Appendix - list of fallacies for easy reference.
- NEW - Solutions to Selected Exercises in back of text.
Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Summary.)
I. ARGUMENTS. 1. The Quarrel.
Arguments, Fallacies, and Logic.
The Ad Baculum.
The Ad Hominem.2. The Debate.
Mill's Model of Debate.
A Critique of Mill's Model.
The Ad Populum: Boosterism.
The Ad Populum: Popularity.
The Ad Verecundiam.
Appeals to Misery and other Emotive Fallacies.3. Dialectic.
Aristotle's Basic Rules of Dialectic.
Eight Revised Rules of Dialectic.
The Ad Ignorantiam.
The Fallacy of Complex Question.
II. LOGIC. 4. Elementary Logic.
Conjunction, Disjunction, and Negation.
Conditionals and Biconditionals.
Testing Arguments for Validity.
The Truth-Table Test for Validity.
Fallacies of Relevance.5. Formal and Informal Logic.
Begging the Question.
Equivocation and Amphiboly.
The Paradox of the Liar.6. Formal Deductive Systems.
Working in System P.
Evaluating System P.7. Nonclassical Propositional Logics.
Evaluating System RP.
Epistemic and Deontic Logics.
Multi-valued Logics.8. Term Logic.
Aristotle's Categorical Propositions.
The Syllogism.9. Predicate Logic.
Motivating Predicate Logic.
Extending System P.
Working in System PL.
Extending System PL.10. Inductive Logic and Scientific Reasoning.
Induction: Narrow and Wide2. Inductive Logic.
The Elements of Probability Theory.
Hasty Generalization and Related Fallacies.
A Causal Fallacy.
III. APPLYING LOGIC TO ARGUMENTS. 11. Economic Reasoning.
The Fallacy of Composition and Division.
Analytical Remarks about Composition and Division.
Expected Utility, Sure-thing, and Minimax Principles.
Group Decisions and the Prisoner's Dilemma.12. Legal Reasoning.
Burden of Proof versus Standard of Proof.
Evidence, Testimony, and Expert Opinion.
Legal Precedent and Analogical Argument.
Legal Facts and Legal Justification.13. Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial Intelligence, Logic, and Computability.
Theories of Belief Revision.
Can Machines Think?14. Issues in the Philosophy of Logic.
Choosing the Right Logic.
The Enlightenment Ideal.Appendix. Solutions to Selected Exercises. Selected Readings. Index.