Reinforced Concrete

Prentice Hall
Edward G. Nawy  
Total pages
May 2008
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For one-semester, junior/senior-level and graduate courses in Reinforced Concrete in the department of civil engineering.


Now reflecting the new 2008 ACI 318-08 Code and the new International Building Code (IBC-2006), the Sixth Edition of this cutting-edge text has been extensively revised to present  state-of-the-art developments in reinforced concrete. It analyzes the design of reinforced concrete members through a unique and practical step-by-step trial and adjustment procedure. The narrative is supplemented with flowcharts to guide students logically through the learning process. Ample photographs of instructional testing of concrete members decreases the need for actual laboratory testing.


This is the only text to integrate a large number of flowcharts in almost every chapter. The text closely and systematically uses and follows procedures using these flowcharts to simplify the understanding and application of the subject in design. This makes it easy for both students and instructors to quickly grasp the key features which form the basis of the underlying theory.


Hundreds of photos of tests to failure of concrete elements make this book unique - helping students to visualize behavior without the need for expensive testing to illustrate it.


Comprehensive sketches, steps for working drawings, and chapter-end problems also reduce the necessity for actual laboratory testing of structural concrete members.


Interaction Diagram Charts for Columns in the Appendix present students with easy-to-use material that complies with the ACI 318 Code flexural limit strain design procedure.


Many examples throughout are worked out in detail,

providing full design examples in SI units as well as SI equivalents in all major steps of every example - giving students a better understanding of the subject.


Numerous alternate solutions using SI Units and lists of equations in SI format for the various topics are found in nearly every chapter.

New to this Edition

The new 2008 ACI 318-08 Code on Concrete Structures and the new International Building Code (IBC-2006) on Seismic Design of Structures, which introduced many changes to the current practice, are covered throughout the book.


Updates on state-of-the-art developments include introducing students to the increased use of multi-story structures designed and built using reinforced and prestressed concrete masonry systems, not only reinforced concrete systems.


Chapter 9, on the design of compressions members, saw a complete revamp to reflect the ACI 318-08 approach in the design of columns and to accommodate the new strength reduction factors. This includes a complete revision of the extensive design examples that cover both non-slender and slender compression members.


Chapter 16, on seismic design of buildings, was significantly revised to comply with the major changes in both the ACI 318 Code and the IBC 2006 Code. Updates include replacing several tables with the newly adopted ones for seismic design of buildings in high seismicity zones.


Concrete materials and the design of concrete mixtures for normal strength and high strength concretes receive comprehensive treatment in Chapters 3 and 4. Plus, a new section on provisions for environmental structures and durability has been added.


Chapter 15, on the LRFD design of bridge deck structures, has been updated in accordance with the recent AASHTO 2004 and its 2006 supplements, reflecting the changes in the torsional and shear strain equations.


• An expanded section features examples on the strut-and-tie modeling for the design of deep reinforced concrete beams and corbels in accordance with the ACI 318-08 Appendix provisions for this method.


A new Chapter 17 offers a comprehensive exploration of the Strength Design of Masonry Structures conforming to the 2007 Masonry Code. This is a unique chapter that all other reinforced concrete books lack, and provides timely coverage of a topic that is gaining universal need in the proportioning of reinforced and prestressed concrete masonry both in normal and high seismic intensity zones.


Table of Contents



1.1 Historical Development of Structural Concrete

1.2 Basic Hypothesis of Reinforced Concrete

1.3 Analysis versus Design of Sections



2.1 Introduction

2.2 Portland Cement

2.3 Water and Air

2.4 Aggregates

2.5 Admixtures

Selected References



3.1 Introduction

3.2 Proportioning Theory—Normal Strength Concrete

3.3 High-Strength High-Performance Concrete Mixtures Design

3.4 PCA Method of Mixture Design

3.5 Estimating Compressive Strength of a Trial Mixture Using the Specified

Compressive Strength

3.6 Mixture Designs for Nuclear-Shielding Concrete

3.7 Quality Tests on Concrete

3.8 Placing and Curing of Concrete

3.9 Properties of Hardened Concrete

3.10 High-Strength Concrete

Selected References

Problems for Solution



4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types and Properties of Steel Reinforcement

4.3 Bar Spacing and Concrete Cover for Steel Reinforcement

4.4 Concrete Structural Systems

4.5 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components

4.6 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins

4.7 Design Strength versus Nominal Strength: Strength Reduction Factor

4.8 Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Selected References



5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block

5.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design

5.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure

5.5 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedures for the Design of Singly Reinforced Beams

5.6 One-Way Slabs

5.7 Doubly Reinforced Sections

5.8 Nonrectangular Sections

5.9 Analysis of T and L Beams

5.10 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of Flanged Sections

5.11 Concrete Joist Construction

5.12 SI Expressions and Example for Flexural Design of Beams

Selected References

Problems for Solution



6.1 Introduction

6.2 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams

6.3 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections

6.4 Reinforced Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement

6.5 Diagonal Tension Analysis of Slender and Intermediate Beams

6.6 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy

6.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear

6.8 Examples of the Design of Web Steel for Shear

6.9 Deep Beams: Non-Linear Approach

6.10 Brackets or Corbels

6.11 Strut and Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements

6.12 SI Design Expressions and Example for Shear Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution



7.1 Introduction

7.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements

7.3 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Elements

7.4 Shear–Torsion–Bending Interaction

7.5 ACI Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Bending,

and Shear

7.6 SI Metric Torsion Expressions and Example for Torsion Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution



8.1 Introduction

8.2 Significance of Deflection Observation

8.3 Deflection Behavior of Beams

8.4 Long-Term Deflection

8.5 Permissible Deflections in Beams and One-Way Slabs

8.6 Computation of Deflections

8.7 Deflection of Continuous Beams

8.8 Operational Deflection Calculation Procedure and Flowchart

8.9 Deflection Control in One-Way Slabs

8.10 Flexural Cracking in Beams and One-Way Slabs

8.11 Tolerable Crack Widths

8.12 ACI 318 Code Provisions for Control of Flexural Cracking

8.13 SI Conversion Expressions and Example of Deflection Evaluation

Selected References

Problems for Solution



9.1 Introduction

9.2 Types of Columns

9.3 Strength of Non-Slender Concentrically Loaded Columns

9.4 Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Columns: Axial Load and Bending

9.5 Strain Limits Method to Establish Reliability Factor and Analysis and Design

of Compression Members

9.6 Whitney’s Approximate Solution in Lieu of Exact Solutions

9.7 Column Strength Reduction Factor

9.8 Load–Moment Strength Interaction Diagrams (P–M Diagrams) for Columns Controlled

by Material Failure

9.9 Practical Design Considerations

9.10 Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Columns

9.11 Numerical Examples for Analysis and Design of Nonslender Columns

9.12 Limit State at Buckling Failure (Slender or Long Columns)

9.13 Moment Magnification: First-Order Analysis

9.14 Second-Order Frame Analysis and the P-Δ effect

9.15 Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns

9.16 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending

9.17 SI Expressions and Example for the Design of Compression Members

Selected References

Problems for Solution



10.1 Introduction

10.2 Bond Stress Development

10.3 Basic Development Length

10.4 Development of Flexural Reinforcement in Continuous Beams

10.5 Splicing of Reinforcement

10.6 Examples of Embedment Length and Splice Design for Beam Reinforcement

10.7 Typical Detailing of Reinforcement and Bar Scheduling

Selected References

Problems for Solution



11.1 Introduction: Review of Methods

11.2 Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates

11.3 The Direct Design Method

11.4 Distributed Factored Moments and Slab Reinforcement by the Direct Design Method

11.5 Design and Analysis Procedure: Direct Design Method

11.6 Equivalent Frame Method for Floor Slab Design

11.7 SI Two-Way Slab Design Expressions and Example

11.8 Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation

11.9 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Two-Way-Action Slabs and Plates

11.10 Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way Action Plates

Selected References

Problems for Solution



12.1 Introduction

12.2 Types of Foundations

12.3 Shear and Flexural Behavior of Footings

12.4 Soil Bearing Pressure at Base of Footings

12.5 Design Considerations in Flexure

12.6 Design Considerations in Shear

12.7 Operational Procedure for the Design of Footings

12.8 Examples of Footing Design

12.9 Structural Design of Other Types of Foundations

Selected References

Problems for Solution



13.1 Introduction

13.2 Longhand Displacement Methods

13.3 Force Method of Analysis

13.4 Displacement Method of Analysis

13.5 Finite-Element Methods and Computer Usage

13.6 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Beams and Frames

13.7 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames

Selected References

Problems for Solution



14.1 Basic Concepts of Prestressing

14.2 Partial Loss of Prestress

14.3 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

14.4 Serviceability Requirements in Prestressed Concrete Members

14.5 Ultimate-Strength Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams

14.6 Example 14.5: Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam

by Strain Compatibility

14.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear

Selected References

Problems for Solution





15.1 LRFD Truck Load Specifications

15.2 Flexural Design Considerations

15.3 Shear Design Considerations

15.4 Horizontal Interface Shear

15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion

15.6 Step-by-Step LRFD Design Procedures

15.7 LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck: Example 15.1

15.8 LRFD Shear and Deflection Design: Example 15.2

Selected References

Problems for Solution



16.1 Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes

16.2 Spectral Response Method

16.3 Equivalent Lateral Force Method

16.4 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings

16.5 Other Aspects in Seismic Design

16.6 Flexural Design of Beams and Columns

16.7 Seismic Detailing Requirements for Beams and Columns

16.8 Horizontal Shear in Beam–Column Connections (Joints)

16.9 Design of Shear Walls

16.10 Design Procedure for Earthquake-Resistant Structures

16.11 Example 16.1: Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the International

Building Code (IBC) Approach

16.12 Example 16.2: Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam–Column Connections

16.13 Example 16.3: Transverse Reinforcement in a Beam Potential Hinge Region

16.14 Example 16.4: Probable Shear Strength of Monolithic Beam–Column Joint

16.15 Example 16.5: Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing

Selected References

Problems for Solution



17.1 Introduction

17.2 Design Principles

17.3 Strength Reduction Factors

17.4 Flexural Strength

17.5 Shear Strength

17.6 Axial Compression Strength

17.7 Anchorage of Masonry Reinforcement

17.8 Prestressed Masonry

17.9 Deflection

17.10 Example 17.9: Detailed Design of CMU Lintel in Seismic Zone

17.11 Example 17.10: Design of Grouted CMU Wall Supporting Beam Lintel of Example 17.9

17.12 Example 17.11: Tension Anchor Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution




Back Cover

Reinforced Concrete: A Fundamental Approach


Author(s): Edward G. Nawy

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-241703-7

ISBN-10: 0-13-241703-0


This new edition of Edward G. Nawy's highly acclaimed work reflects the very latest ACI-318-08 Building Code and includes these major changes and additions:


×        All design examples conform to the Strain Limits Design Method, using the applicable load factors and strength reduction factors.

×        An updated chapter on seismic design of buildings to comply with the major changes in the ACI 318 Code, and the new International Building Code provisions (IBC 2006) on seismic design. The chapter includes several design examples on confinement, frames, and shear walls.

×        A chapter on LRFD design of bridge deck structures in accordance with AASHTO 2004, revamped to reflect the changes in torsional and shear strain equations.

×        A new comprehensive chapter on Strength Design of Masonry Structures, conforming to the latest 2007 Masonry Code.

×        An expanded section with examples on the strut-and-tie modeling for the design of deep concrete beams and corbels, with extensive design examples using the ACI 318-08 appendix provisions for this method.

×        Chapter 9 on compression members was totally revamped to reflect the ACI 318-08 approach.

×        A comprehensive chapter on concrete materials and design of concrete mixtures for normal-strength and high-strength concretes, as well as provisions for environmental structures and a new section with extensive tables on concrete durability.


A self-contained textbook, Reinforced Concrete, Sixth Edition can be used for a one-semester undergraduate level course and a one-semester graduate level course in reinforced concrete in standard civil engineering programs. It is equally useful for the practicing engineer. It is the only book that closely and systematically uses and follows procedures in numerous flowcharts within each chapter that simplify the understanding and application of the subject in design.


This edition provides thorough coverage of short- and long-term material behavior, design of concrete mixtures, reliability and structural safety, serviceability behavior of beams and two-way slabs and plates, torsion and shear, design of two-way structural slab and plate systems, continuity in concrete structures, seismic design of high-rise buildings in high-intensity earthquake zones, LRFD design of bridge structures, and the design of masonry structures.


Comprehensive sketches and sets of working drawings, end-of-chapter problems, pictures of actual structural tests to failure, and flowcharts appear throughout the book. The book also includes an extended appendix of nomograms and tables.






Dr. Edward G. Nawy is a distinguished professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. He has been active in the ACI and PCI since 1959 and is internationally recognized for his extensive research work in the fields of reinforced and prestressed concrete, particularly in the areas of crack and deflection control. Dr. Nawy has published more than 175 papers in numerous technical journals worldwide. He is also the author of several books, including Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach, FifthEdition (2006), published by Prentice Hall; Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete, Second Edition (2001), published by John Wiley and Sons; and Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, Second Edition (2008), published by Taylor and Francis/CRC Press. He has been the recipient of several major awards, including the Henry L. Kennedy Award of the ACI, the ACI Concrete Research Council Award, the ACI Design Practice Award, honorary membership of the ACI, honorary professorship with the Nanjing Institute of Technology, and the emeritus honorary membership of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Concrete. Dr. Nawy is a licensed Professional Engineer in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, California, and Florida, Evaluator for the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Chartered Civil Engineer overseas, and has been a consultant in forensic engineering throughout the United States.