Programming in C

Stephen G. Kochan  
Total pages
August 2014
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Programming in C
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Programming in C, Fourth Edition is a newly revised and updated edition of Steven Kochan's classic C programming tutorial — a book that has helped thousands of students master C over the past 25 years. This edition fully reflects the latest developments in the C programming  and has been crafted to help students master C regardless of the platform they intend to use or the applications they intend to create—including mobile and gaming-device applications — where C's elegance and speed make it especially valuable. Kochan begins with the fundamentals, then covers every facet of C programming: variables, data types, arithmetic expressions, program looping, making decisions, arrays, functions, structures, character strings, pointers, operations on bits, the preprocessors, I/O, and more. Coverage also includes chapters on working with larger programs; debugging programs, and the fundamentals of object-oriented programming.


  • The book that's helped programmers master C for 25+ years: now updated for even greater relevance and value
  • Revamped examples and well-crafted exercises provide hands-on experience
  • Begins with simple tasks and builds to pro-quality techniques
  • Guide to common mistakes helps you build robust, reliable code without trial-and-error
  • By Stephen Kochan, author of several best-selling programming tutorials, including Programming in Objective-C

New to this Edition

-Reworked examples and explanations based on reader and instructor feedback on this title as well as Programming in Objective-C
-New material on C programming for mobile and game development
-New material on C-based object-oriented programming languages (e.g., Objective-C)
-Instructor materials  

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

1 Some Fundamentals 5

Programming 5

Higher-Level Languages 5

Operating Systems 6

Compiling Programs 7

Integrated Development Environments 10

Language Interpreters 10

2 Compiling and Running Your First Program 11

Compiling Your Program 12

Running Your Program 12

Understanding Your First Program 13

Displaying the Values of Variables 15

Comments 17

Exercises 19

3 Variables, Data Types, and Arithmetic Expressions 21

Understanding Data Types and Constants 21

 The Integer Type int 22

 The Floating Number Type float 23

 The Extended Precision Type double 23

 The Single Character Type char 24

 The Boolean Data Type _Bool 24

     Type Specifiers: long, long long, short, unsigned, and signed 26

Working with Variables 29

Working with Arithmetic Expressions 30

 Integer Arithmetic and the Unary Minus Operator 33

Combining Operations with Assignment: The Assignment Operators 39

Types _Complex and _Imaginary 40

Exercises 40

4 Program Looping 43

Triangular Numbers 43

The for Statement 44

 Relational Operators 46

 Aligning Output 50

Program Input 51

 Nested for Loops 53

 for Loop Variants 55

The while Statement 56

The do Statement 60

 The break Statement 62

 The continue Statement 62

Exercises 63

5 Making Decisions 65

The if Statement 65

 The if-else Construct 69

 Compound Relational Tests 72

 Nested if Statements 74

 The else if Construct 76

The switch Statement 83

Boolean Variables 86

The Conditional Operator 90

Exercises 92

6 Working with Arrays 95

Defining an Array 96

 Using Array Elements as Counters 100

 Generating Fibonacci Numbers 103

 Using an Array to Generate Prime Numbers 104

Initializing Arrays 106

Character Arrays 108

 Base Conversion Using Arrays 109

 The const Qualifier 111

Multidimensional Arrays 113

Variable Length Arrays 115

Exercises 117

7 Working with Functions 119

Defining a Function 119

Arguments and Local Variables 123

 Function Prototype Declaration 124

 Automatic Local Variables 124

Returning Function Results 126

Functions Calling Functions Calling... 130

 Declaring Return Types and Argument Types 133

 Checking Function Arguments 135

Top-Down Programming 137

Functions and Arrays 137

 Assignment Operators 141

 Sorting Arrays 143

 Multidimensional Arrays 146

Global Variables 151

Automatic and Static Variables 155

Recursive Functions 158

Exercises 161

8 Working with Structures 163

The Basics of Structures 163

A Structure for Storing the Date 164

 Using Structures in Expressions 166

Functions and Structures 169

 A Structure for Storing the Time 175

Initializing Structures 178

 Compound Literals 178

Arrays of Structures 180

Structures Containing Structures 183

Structures Containing Arrays 185

Structure Variants 189

Exercises 190

9 Character Strings 193

Revisiting the Basics of Strings 193

Arrays of Characters 194

Variable-Length Character Strings 197

 Initializing and Displaying Character Strings 199

 Testing Two Character Strings for Equality 202

 Inputting Character Strings 204

 Single-Character Input 206

 The Null String 211

Escape Characters 215

More on Constant Strings 217

Character Strings, Structures, and Arrays 218

     A Better Search Method 221

Character Operations 226

Exercises 229

10 Pointers 233

Pointers and Indirection 233

Defining a Pointer Variable 234

Using Pointers in Expressions 237

Working with Pointers and Structures 239

 Structures Containing Pointers 241

 Linked Lists 243

The Keyword const and Pointers 251

Pointers and Functions 252

Pointers and Arrays 258

 A Slight Digression About Program Optimization 262

     Is It an Array or Is It a Pointer? 262

 Pointers to Character Strings 264

 Constant Character Strings and Pointers 266

 The Increment and Decrement Operators Revisited 267

Operations on Pointers 271

Pointers to Functions 272

Pointers and Memory Addresses 273

Exercises 275

11 Operations on Bits 277

The Basics of Bits 277

Bit Operators 278

 The Bitwise AND Operator 279

 The Bitwise Inclusive-OR Operator 281

 The Bitwise Exclusive-OR Operator 282

 The Ones Complement Operator 283

 The Left Shift Operator 285

 The Right Shift Operator 286

 A Shift Function 286

 Rotating Bits 288

Bit Fields 291

Exercises 295

12 The Preprocessor 297

The #define Statement 297

 Program Extendability 301

 Program Portability 302

 More Advanced Types of Definitions 304

 The # Operator 309

 The ## Operator 310

The #include Statement 311

 System Include Files 313

Conditional Compilation 314

 The #ifdef, #endif, #else, and #ifndef Statements 314

 The #if and #elif Preprocessor Statements 316

 The #undef Statement 317

Exercises 318

13 Extending Data Types with the Enumerated Data Type, Type Definitions, and Data Type Conversions 319

Enumerated Data Types 319

The typedef Statement 323

Data Type Conversions 325

 Sign Extension 327

 Argument Conversion 328

Exercises 329

14 Working with Larger Programs 331

Dividing Your Program into Multiple Files 331

 Compiling Multiple Source Files from the Command Line 332

Communication Between Modules 334

 External Variables 334

 Static Versus Extern Variables and Functions 337

 Using Header Files Effectively 339

Other Utilities for Working with Larger Programs 341

 The make Utility 341

 The cvs Utility 343

 Unix Utilities: ar, grep, sed, and so on 343

15 Input and Output Operations in C 345

Character I/O: getchar() and putchar() 346

Formatted I/O: printf() and scanf() 346

 The printf() Function 346

 The scanf() Function 353

Input and Output Operations with Files 358

 Redirecting I/O to a File 358

 End of File 361

Special Functions for Working with Files 362

 The fopen Function 362

The getc() and putc() Functions 364

 The fclose() Function 365

 The feof Function 367

 The fprintf() and fscanf() Functions 367

 The fgets() and fputs() Functions 367

 stdin, stdout, and stderr 368

 The exit() Function 369

 Renaming and Removing Files 370

Exercises 371

16 Miscellaneous and Advanced Features 373

Miscellaneous Language Statements 373

 The goto Statement 373

 The null Statement 374

Working with Unions 375

The Comma Operator 378

Type Qualifiers 379

 The register Qualifier 379

 The volatile Qualifier 379

 The restrict Qualifier 379

Command-line Arguments 380

Dynamic Memory Allocation 384

 The calloc() and malloc() Functions 385

 The sizeof Operator 385

 The free Function 387

Exercises 389

17 Debugging Programs 391

Debugging with the Preprocessor 391

Debugging Programs with gdb 397

 Working with Variables 400

 Source File Display 401

 Controlling Program Execution 402

 Getting a Stack Trace 406

 Calling Functions and Setting Arrays and Structures 407

 Getting Help with gdb Commands 408

 Odds and Ends 410

18 Object-Oriented Programming 413

What Is an Object Anyway? 413

Instances and Methods 414

Writing a C Program to Work with Fractions 416

Defining an Objective-C Class to Work with Fractions 417

Defining a C++ Class to Work with Fractions 421

Defining a C# Class to Work with Fractions 424

A C Language Summary 427

B The Standard C Library 471

C Compiling Programs with gcc 495

D Common Programming Mistakes 499

E Resources 505

TOC, 9780321776419, 7/28/2014



Stephen G. Kochan has been developing software with the C programming language for more than 30 years. He is the author of several best-selling titles on the C language, including Programming in C , Programming in Objective-C , and Topics in C Programming . He has also written extensively on Unix and is the author or coauthor of Exploring the Unix System and Unix Shell Programming .