Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

Series
Pearson
Author
Philip G. Zimbardo / Robert L. Johnson / Vivian McCann  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
7
Language
English
Total pages
776
Pub.-date
August 2013
ISBN13
9781292021249
ISBN
1292021241
Related Titles


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Psychology: Pearson New International Edition
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Description

Where great science meets great teaching.

 

At just fourteen chapters, Psychology: Core Concepts 7e provides rich coverage of the foundational topics taught in most introductory courses.  

 

Psychology: Core Concepts focuses on a manageable number of core concepts (usually three to five) in each chapter, allowing students to attain a deeper level of understanding of the material. Learning is reinforced through focused application and critical thinking activities, and connections between concepts are drawn across chapters to help students see the big picture of psychology as a whole. The 7th edition features an enhanced critical thinking emphasis, with new chapter-opening "Problems" and new end-of-chapter critical thinking applications that promote active learning.

 

Teaching & Learning Experience

  • Personalize Learning — The new MyPsychLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking — Pedagogical features are designed to help students learn the problem-solving skills and critical thinking techniques of a good psychologist.
  • Engage Students — In-text learning activities and the new MyPsychLab Video Series maintain student interest both in and out of the classroom.
  • Explore Research — Current research reflects the most up-to-date psychological theories and applications.
  • Understand Culture and Diversity — Cross-cultural, multicultural, and gender research is woven throughout the text to reflect the increasing diversity and global reach of psychology.
  • Support Instructors — An Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank (both print and computerized), Interactive PowerPoints, the new MyPsychLab Video Series, Telecourse Videos, and a Telecourse Study Guide provide instructors with the ultimate supplements package.
Preview Site: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/fall2011preview/#Psych Facebook Page: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Psychology-Core-Concepts/214526791978469

Features

WHERE GREAT SCIENCE MEETS GREAT TEACHING.

  • “Psychology Matters” applications within each chapter section explore connections between psychology and everyday life, and promote critical thinking by helping students evaluate many of the psychological ideas they will encounter in popular press (e.g. emotional differences between men and women, the origin of sexual orientation, the side effects of psychoactive drugs, etc.). A special “Psychology Matters” section within each chapter focuses on Using Psychology to Learn Psychology, offering practical advice for increased academic success. (ex. p. 79)
  • “Connection" arrows link material across chapters, showing clear relationships between concepts in various topical areas. An explanatory note accompanies the marginal arrow, giving the reader a quick review or preview of the related discussion found in other chapters. This conveys to students that the discipline of psychology contains many interconnecting threads that weave together to provide meaning across topics, rather than functioning as a set of isolated facts and topics. (ex. p. 68)
  • The Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide at the end of each chapter in the text includes a program review and activities tied to the Discovering Psychology video series, helping students tie text concepts to what they see in the videos.  Students can access the Discovering Psychology videos online through MyPsychLab whenever and wherever they want. They can also complete an online, automatically scored review quiz. (ex. p. 84)

PERSONALIZE LEARNING

  • The new MyPsychLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • New MyPsychLab Video Series - This new video series offers the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content. These exclusive half-hour videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain, and onto the street to experience real-world applications. In MyPsychLab, students can also access the Discovering Psychology videos, which provide an overview of historic and current theories of human behavior, and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook.
  • The New Experiments Tool, found in MyPsychLab, allows students to experience psychology through online experiments that reinforce class lessons and textbook content.
  • A New Read More section in MyPsychLab offers interested students the opportunity to explore topics that branch out from the core concepts presented in the text.
  • The Pearson eText allows students to access their textbook anytime, anywhere, and any way they want—including listening online or downloading to their iPad.
  • A personalized study plan for each student, based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, arranges content from less complex thinking—like remembering and understanding—to more complex critical thinking—like applying and analyzing. This layered approach promotes better critical-thinking skills, and helps students succeed in the course and beyond.
  • Assessment tied to every video, application, and chapter enables both instructors and students to track progress and get immediate feedback. With results feeding into a powerful gradebook, the assessment program helps instructors identify student challenges early—and find the best resources with which to help students.
  • An assignment calendar allows instructors to assign graded activities, with specific deadlines, and measure student progress.
  • Class Prep collects the very best class presentation resources in one convenient online destination, so instructors can keep students engaged throughout every class.

IMPROVE CRITICAL THINKING

  • Chapter Opening Problems are designed to get students engaged in the material from the onset. Students are encouraged to think through the problem as they read the chapter, using the core concepts presented to help them resolve the problem. A special effort has been made in this new edition to provide clues throughout the chapter that will help students understand the solution to the chapter-opening problem. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well. (ex. p. 40)
  • Critical Thinking applications at the end of each chapter help students become better consumers of scientific information and build upon the critical thinking skills introduced in the first chapter. (ex. p. 80)
  • “Do It Yourself!” learning activities offer simple demonstrations of psychological principles and allow students to actively apply psychological concepts alone or in groups, further enhancing their understanding. (ex. p. 81)
  • “Psychology Matters” applications within each chapter section explore connections between psychology and everyday life and promote critical thinking by helping students evaluate many of the psychological ideas they will encounter in popular press (e.g. emotional differences between men and women, the origin of sexual orientation, the side effects of psychoactive drugs, etc.). A special “Psychology Matters” section within each chapter focuses on Using Psychology to Learn Psychology, offering practical advice for increased academic success. (ex. p. 79)
  • A personalized study plan for each student, based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, arranges content from less complex thinking—like remembering and understanding—to more complex critical thinking—like applying and analyzing. This layered approach promotes better critical-thinking skills, and helps students succeed in the course and beyond.

ENGAGE STUDENTS

  • A “Key Question” opens each chapter section and a “Core Concept” is presented as a brief answer. These Key Questions and Core Concepts help students understand the big picture and guide them through the chapter material. Chapter overview maps and chapter-ending summaries are organized around the “Key Questions” and “Core Concepts” to further reinforce learning. (ex. p. 43)
  • Chapter Opening Problems are designed to get students engaged in the material from the onset. Students are encouraged to think through the problem as they read the chapter, using the core concepts presented to help them resolve the problem. A special effort has been made in this new edition to provide clues throughout the chapter that will help students understand the solution to the chapter-opening problem. (ex. p. 40) TheChapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well. (ex. p. 81)
  • “Check Your Understanding" self-tests within each chapter provide immediate reinforcement and help students assess what they know and where they need further study. Questions are broken down to focus on recall, analysis, or application of the material. One of the “Check Your Understanding” questions always focuses on the chapter's “Core Concept.” This approach is deliberately used to reinforce the student's use of the “Core Concepts.” (ex. p. 62)
  • “Do It Yourself!" learning activities offer simple demonstrations of psychological principles and allow students to actively apply psychological concepts alone or in groups, further enhancing their understanding.  (ex. p. 81)
  • “Psychology Matters" applications within each chapter section explore connections between psychology and everyday life and promote critical thinking by helping students evaluate many of the psychological ideas they will encounter in popular press (e.g. emotional differences between men and women, the origin of sexual orientation, the side effects of psychoactive drugs, etc.). A special “Psychology Matters” section within each chapter focuses on Using Psychology to Learn Psychology, offering practical advice for increased academic success. (ex. p. 79)
  • “Connection" arrows link material across chapters, showing clear relationships between concepts in various topical areas. An explanatory note accompanies the marginal arrow, giving the reader a quick review or preview of the related discussion found in other chapters. This conveys to students that the discipline of psychology contains many interconnecting threads that weave together to provide meaning across topics, rather than functioning as a set of isolated facts and topics. (ex. p. 68)
  • The Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide at the end of each chapter in the text includes a program review and activities tied to the Discovering Psychology video series, helping students tie text concepts to what they see in the videos.  Students can access the Discovering Psychology videos online through MyPsychLab whenever and wherever they want. They can also complete an online, automatically scored review quiz. (ex. p. 84)

EXPLORE RESEARCH

  • Phil Zimbardo’s 50 plus years of experience in teaching Introductory Psychology are reflected on each page of the text. Collectively, the authors have aspired to present a scientific overview of the field of psychology within meaningful patterns to help students better remember what they learn so that they can apply it in their own lives. With an effortless balance of research and application, the authors’ goal has become a concrete reality, self-proclaimed and reinforced with each updated edition.
  • Nearly 350 new references are included in this edition to reflect the abundance of new developments that have occurred since the publication of the previous edition. Some examples include: an objective comparison between the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals; the activity of the brain’s “default network” when people focus their attention internally; the use of brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently; and results that show decisions can be influenced by a personality trait called the time perspective – referring to a past, present, or future orientation. (ex. p. 71)

UNDERSTAND CULTURE AND DIVERSITY

  • Culture and Gender coverage is fully integrated where relevant throughout the text, so all students see the relevance of psychology to their lives. Significant new cross-cultural material has been added throughout the text wherever such material can help the reader better understand the core concepts.
  • Throughout the text, the authors convey that psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes that both generalizes and differs across cultures.
  • A discussion of culture is included under the following chapter subheads: Adolescence and Culture (Ch. 7) and The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality (Ch. 10). A “Psychology Matters” feature also discusses how gender differences in emotion depend on both biology and culture (Ch. 9).

SUPPORT INSTRUCTORS

  • An Instructor’s Manual contains invaluable tools for teaching an introductory psychology course. Each chapter offers integrated teaching outlines to help instructors seamlessly incorporate all of the ancillary materials for this book into their lectures, and all Key Questions, Core Concepts, and Key Terms for each chapter are listed for quick reference. Lecture launchers, handouts, and activities are also included.
  • Print Test Bank and MyTest Computerized Test Bank - An updated test bank contains over 2000 accuracy-checked questions, including multiple choice, completion, conceptual matching sequences, and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab.
  • New Interactive PowerPoint Lecture Slides offer detailed outlines of key points for each chapter supported by selected visuals from the textbook. A separate Art and Figure version of these presentations contain all art from the textbook for which Pearson has been granted electronic permissions.
  • MyPsychLab offers students useful and engaging self-assessment tools, and provides instructors flexibility in assessing and tracking student progress. To instructors, MyPsychLab is a powerful tool for assessing student performance and adapting course content to students’ changing needs – without investing additional time or resources. New videos, experiments, BioFlix animations, eText, concept mapping, and assessments make MyPsychLab the most innovative teaching device for instructors.
  • New MyPsychLab Video Series - This new video series offers the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content. These half-hour exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain, and onto the street to experience real-world applications.
  • Discovering Psychology Telecourse Videos and Faculty Guide - Written, designed, and hosted by Phil Zimbardo, the Telecourse videos reveal psychology’s contribution not only to understanding the puzzles of behavior but also to identifying solutions and treatments to ease the problems of mental disorders. The accompanying faculty guide provides guidelines using Discovering Psychology as a resource within your course, and includes the complete Telecourse Study Guide plus suggested activities, suggested essays, cited studies, instructional resources, video program test questions and answers, and a key term glossary.
  • A robust Student Study Guide is filled with guided activities and in-depth exercises to promote student learning.
  • Class Prep collects the very best class presentation resources in one convenient online destination, so instructors can keep students engaged throughout every class.
  • The Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide at the end of each chapter in the text includes a program review and activities tied to the Discovering Psychology video series, helping students tie text concepts to what they see in the videos.  Students can access the Discovering Psychology videos online through MyPsychLab whenever and wherever they want. They can also complete an online, automatically scored review quiz.
  • Create a Custom Text: For enrollments of at least 25, create your own textbook by combining chapters from best-selling Pearson textbooks and/or reading selections in the sequence you want.  To begin building your custom text, visit www.pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom editor to create your ideal text–publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your Pearson Publisher’s Representative to get started.

New to this Edition

Found in this section:

1. Overview of changes

2. Chapter-by-chapter changes

 

 

 

1. Overview of Changes

 

PERSONALIZE LEARNING WITH MYPSYCHLAB

  • The new MyPsychLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • MyPsychLab icons have been inserted directly into the margins of the text. (ex. p. 53)
  • New MyPsychLab Video Series: This new  video series offers the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content. These half-hour exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain, and onto the street to experience real-world applications. In MyPsychLab, students can also access the Discovering Psychology videos, which provide an overview of historic and current theories of human behavior, and feature many of the researchers and studies introduced in this textbook.
  • A New Experiment Tool found in MyPsychLab allows students to experience psychology through online experiments that reinforce class lessons and textbook content.
  • A New Read More section in MyPsychLab offers interested students the opportunity to explore topics that branch out from the core concepts presented in the text.
  • The Pearson eText lets allows students to access their textbook anytime, anywhere, and any way they want—including listening online or downloading to their iPad.
  • A personalized study plan for each student, based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, arranges content from less complex thinking—like remembering and understanding—to more complex critical thinking—like applying and analyzing. This layered approach promotes better critical-thinking skills, and helps students succeed in the course and beyond.
  • Assessment tied to every video, application, and chapter enables both instructors and students to track progress and get immediate feedback. With results feeding into a powerful gradebook, the assessment program helps instructors identify student challenges early—and find the best resources with which to help students.
  • An assignment calendar allows instructors to assign graded activities, with specific deadlines, and measure student progress.
  • Class Prep collects the very best class presentation resources in one convenient online destination, so instructors can keep students engaged throughout every class.

IMPROVE CRITICAL THINKING

  • Chapter-Opening Problems - A special effort has been made in this new edition to provide clues throughout the chapter that will help students understand the solution to the chapter-opening problem. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well. (ex. p. 40)
  • Common psychological misconceptions are addressed throughout the text—such as the notion that venting anger gets it “out of your system” or the belief that punishment is the most effective way of changing behavior. But in the Critical Thinking Applied segment at the end of each chapter, an important psychological issue in the popular media or an ongoing debate within the field is discussed. (ex. p. 80)

ENGAGE STUDENTS

  • Chapter-Opening Problems - A special effort has been made in this new edition to provide clues throughout the chapter that will help students understand the solution to the chapter-opening problem. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well. (ex. p. 40)
  • The focus of psychology’ssix main perspectives has shifted to practical applications, giving concrete example of a real-life problem for each.

EXPLORE RESEARCH

  • Nearly 350 new references are included in this edition to reflect the abundance of new developments that have occurred since the publication of the previous edition. Some examples include: an objective comparison between the intensities of taste sensations experienced by different individuals; the activity of the brain’s “default network” when people focus their attention internally; the use of brain scans to confirm the assertion that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently; and results that show decisions can be influenced by a personality trait called the time perspective – referring to a past, present, or future orientation. (ex. p. 71)
  • A clarified and updated discussion of the scientific method now reflects more accurately how research is done in a real-world context.

UNDERSTAND CULTURE AND DIVERSITY

  • New material has been added on cross-cultural differences in shyness, research on mindset, and individual differences in time perspective.

SUPPORT INSTRUCTORS

  • New MyPsychLab Video Series - The new MyPsychLabThis newvideo series offers the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video content. These half-hour exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laboratories, inside the body and brain, and onto the street to experience real-world applications.
  • Print Test Bank and MyTest Computerized Test Bank - An updated test bank contains over 2000 accuracy-checked questions, including multiple choice, completion, conceptual matching sequences, and critical essays. Test item questions have been also written to test student comprehension of select multimedia assets found with MyPsychLab.
  • New Interactive PowerPoint Lecture Slides offer detailed outlines of key points for each chapter supported by selected visuals from the textbook. A separate Art and Figure version of these presentations contain all art from the textbook for which Pearson has been granted electronic permissions.

2. Chapter-by-chapter changes

 

Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

  • Updated figure on the work settings of psychologists
  • Forensic and environmental psychology now included in section on Applied Psychological Specialties
  • Rewritten sections on Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudopsychology and Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology to improve clarity
  • Rewritten section onWhat Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? to make room for a concrete example of each perspective to a real-life problem.
  • Revised table onPsychology’s Six Perspectives to focus on practical application of each perspective, rather than origin of each perspective.
  • New Do It Yourself! box in Perspectives section: Applying Psychology’s Perspectives
  • Revised table on Contributions of Women in Psychology to include today’s women, such as Loftus, Maccoby, Ainsworth, Maslach, etc.
  • Reordered Core Concepts 1.2 and 1.3 to improve chapter flow of topics
  • Condensed the opening paragraphs of How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? for clarity and to eliminate repetitive material.
  • Updated discussion of theSteps In the Scientific Method to condense Steps 2 and 3 from the previous edition (performing a controlled test and gathering objective data) into one step — which is a more accurate representation, as gathering of data generally occurs during a controlled test
  • Updated coverage of the chapter Experiment to present a clearer and more concise discussion for students
  • New subhead in Correlational Studies section added to teach students the three possible interpretations of any correlational finding, helping students operationalize our fifth critical thinking guideline and improve informational literacy as they will be better equipped to correctly interpret everyday news headlines
  • Revised section on Surveys, Naturalistic Observation, and Case Study to include clear presentation of advantages, disadvantages, and best uses of each method
  • New subhead added in Ethical Issues to discuss Informed Consent.
  • New Do It Yourself! box added to the end of Critical Thinking Applied

 

Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature

  • New chapter opening vignettetells the fascinating story of Harvard neurologist Jill Bolte Taylor, who — at the age of 37 — suffered a massive stroke
  • Added new developments ingenetic testing toPsychology Matters: Choosing Your Children’s Genes
  • Updated references to current recreational drugs, as well as how current medications such as SSRIs and medications for Alzheimer’s disease affect neurotransmitter activity
  • Restructured section on neurotransmitters and their processes for clarity
  • Added new information on everyday functions of the hippocampus and amygdala
  • Significantly updated content on mirror neurons, including critically thinking about the mirror neuron controversy
  • Added findings of meditation on brain activity
  • Combined the split-brain material into one section in order to make it easier for students to understand and incorporated new examples into this discussion
  • Replaced several figures with newer updated versions

 

Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception

  • Moved this chapter to now appear immediately after the Biology chapter, based on the suggestion of multiple reviewers (in previous edition, this was Chapter 7)
  • New discussion included emphasizing that there is no sharp boundary between the processes of sensation and perception
  • Clarified the distinction between change blindness andinattentional blindness
  • Updated sensation and perception discussion to include how information is processed in parallel through two visual pathways in the brain: the "what" pathway and the "where" pathway
  • Extensively revised section on taste, based, in part, on personal communication with Linda Batroshuk, the world’s leading expert on the subject.
  • Completely revised section on pain–particularly on the "gate control" theory, emphasizing the ability of the brain and one’s mental state to open or close the gate and added new research throughout
  • Included a note that fMRI studies have confirmed cognitive findings that Americans and Asians perceive scenes differently

 

Chapter 4: Learning and Human Nurture

  • Added new real-world applications to classical conditioning, showing how it can be used to make improvements in life (rather than just explain problems)
  • Clarified Skinner’s distinction between reward and reinforcement (per reviewer request)
  • Revised section on punishment to include more multicultural examples
  • Revised the "Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior" to employ more positive strategies
  • Updated the effects of media violence with newer research from Boyatzis and from Anderson
  • Updated research on drugs used to "erase" learned associations between certain memories and the trauma associated with them
  • New Do It Yourself! box added to the end of the chapter, providing a hands-on opportunity to apply chapter principles

Chapter 5: Memory

  • Revised presentation of the distinction between short term memory and working memory for clarity
  • New section added on the episodic buffer to reflect recent research
  • Added newest findings on the impact of driving while using a cell phone, and its relation to working memory’s limitations
  • Included a new section discussing where memories are stored, and how consolidation occurs
  • Completely revised Psychology Matters section on flashbulb memories
  • Added a new paragraph comparing accuracy of recognition to recall
  • Discussed new findings on the connection between attachment style and memories of childhood trauma included in Critical Thinking Applied

Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence

  • 25 New references
  • Condensed discussion on concepts and added new examples to show relevance to students’ lives
  • Added new section on intuition with exciting new research
  • Added student-friendly examples of problem-solving strategies, such as mental sets, working backward, show how these concepts work in a wider variety of real-life situations.
  • Added new examples of biases such as hindsight bias and availability bias
  • Explained nnew findings indicating the slowing of the Flynn effect in developed countries, which may foreshadow a narrowing of the IQ gap between developed and developing countries
  • Added concept of wisdom to discussion of Sternberg’s view of intelligence
  • Created a new section on Cognitive Theories of Intelligence, which discusses assessment of the cognitive theories, including description of Sternberg’s recent collaboration with the College Board to add creative and practical intelligence assessments to the SAT, and its promising results
  • Reworked section on animal language includes new findings
  • Updated coverage of self-fulfilling prophecies and added real-world effects of self-fulfilling prophecies in business, the military, jury trials, and nursing homes

Chapter 7: Development over the Lifespan

  • Added a new Psychology Matters piece entitled "Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success," tells of the growing role of self-control in life success, and how parents and teachers can help nurture this important ability
  • Applied Assimilation and accommodation to cultural studies
  • Added a new paragraph linking separation anxiety to development of object permanence.
  • Created a new section discussing Vygotsky’s theory, scaffolding, and the ZPD
  • Updated research on neural correlates of temperament
  • Discussed new research suggesting authoritarian parenting style, combined with insecure attachment style, increases risk for antisocial behavior
  • Added cross-cultural research on body image in non-Western teens
  • Revised treatment of sexual orientation updates data and presentation of non-traditional orientations
  • Created a large new section on neural development in adolescence — what’s happening in the teen brain, and how it influences behavior and social interactions
  • Shared new findings showing vocabulary, social skills, and wisdom all increase with age.
  • Added more findings on impact of physical exercise on a broad array of age-related functions.
  • Added new findings on how selective social interaction in late adulthood helps regulate emotions and increases life satisfaction

Chapter 8: States of Consciousness

  • Included a new opening vignette discussing Stephanie Meyer’s story of how the basis for Twilight came to her in a dream.
  • Reworked entire first Core Concept section to improve clarity and flow of topics
  • Completely revised section on Daydreaming now includes new findings on the brain default network; the impact of daydreaming on creativity and goal achievement; a new study showing daydreaming while studying can make you forget some of what you just learned; and a new study showing inverse relationship between daydreaming and happiness
  • Updated section on how jet leg works, plus addition of Monday Morning Blues as example of circadian rhythm shift, and study of nurses showing double the accident rate for nurses with rotating shifts
  • Included the latest research on dreaming and memory consolidation, including: understanding of logic tasks improves with REM sleep; spatial memory improves after NREM sleep; REM’s role in creating novel associations, and recent study of math students’ enhanced performance after REM sleep
  • Included the newest findings on hypnosis and pain management.
  • Included a discussion on the first of its kind brain scan study (2011) showing increase in cortical density after 8 weeks of meditation — growth in areas affecting learning and memory, empathy, emotional processing, and attention
  • Updated discussion showing the latest data on drug use

Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

  • New opening vignette focusing on the problem of understanding Lance Armstrong’s motivation
  • Updated the order of coverage of motivation and emotion in this chapter; the chapter now begins with motivation
  • New discussion of theory of motivation based in evolutionary psychology, providing a vehicle for bringing the many disparate types of motivation (e.g., sexuality and hunger) together under one theoretical rubric
  • Revised Maslow’s hierarchy figure and added a new figure showing the new evolutionary revision of Maslow’s hierarchy
  • Modified discussion of sexuality–particularly sexual orientation
  • New Do It Yourself! box at the end of the Critical Thinking Applied section: Thinking Critically About Polygraphy

Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person

  • New discussion of a 2010 study by Sulloway and Zweigenhaft on birth order and risk-taking in athletics
  • New material presented on cross cultural differences in shyness
  • Section on Personality Disorders has been moved to the Disorders chapter (Chapter 12) to improve narrative flow
  • New example discussing Tiger Woods’s scandal to replace older example of Ken Lay from Enron to illustrate various theories of personality.
  • Completely updated section onPositive Psychology
  • New discussion on Carol Dweck’s 2006 research on mindset (added as a new key term, also)
  • New Psychology Matters: The Personality of Time

Chapter 11: Social Psychology

  • New mention of the person-situation interaction (new reference)
  • Rewritten section of the Asch Effect for clarification
  • New discussion and table included on cross cultural differences in conformity
  • Included a new discussion of illusion of personal invulnerability
  • Completely updated Heroic Defiance section, including new examples like the recent Egyptian protests
  • Added new examples of recent replications of Milgram’s experiment
  • Included recent examples in the news of the bystander problem
  • Updated discussion of the matching hypothesis
  • Moved the section on Loving Relationships to earlier in the chapter to improve flow of topics
  • New discussion added on the Jig Saw Classroom
  • NewPsychology Matters: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations
  • Updated discussion of the Abu Ghraib prison scandal
  • Completely updated discussion: Preventing Bullying by Systemic Changes and Reframing
  • Updated Critical Thinking Applied section to include new examples

Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

  • Moved discussion on Personality Disorders from the Personality chapter, per request of reviewers and added new references to this section
  • Updated mental health/disorder stats throughout the chapter
  • New figure on The Biopsychology of Mental Disorder — highlighting the following possible influences identified by researchers: genetics, brain injury, infections, toxins, stress, brain circuits, experience/learning, & neurotransmitters
  • New figure on Mayberg’s Model of Depression — emphasizing that depression involves 3 factors: biological vulnerability, external stressors, and abnormality of the mood-regulation circuits in the brain
  • New material on Evolutionary influences on depression–and why it may have an adaptive component.
  • New discussion added about the neuroscience of borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia
  • New material added about psychopathy — which is attracting increasing interest but is not a DSM-IV disorder
  • New references added throughout, including the incidence of various mental disorders, the revision of the DSM, cross-cultural similarities/differences in mental disorders, the influence of insomnia on various disorders, expert testimony in insanity case, and many more

Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders

  • Added a new emphasis in the literature on the value of exercise in combating depression and the anxiety disorders.
  • Added a discussion on the growing rift within clinical psychology (and between APA and APS) over empirically supported treatments and empirically based practice
  • Added a new discussion of a federal report promoting prevention programs, particularly among at-risk youth
  • Updated the section on the medication vs. psychotherapy debate; also included refinements of research on medications and psychotherapy
  • New research added on the effectiveness of, and strategies for, cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Discussion added on a new report urging prescriptive authority for psychologists
  • Added a discussion on Mayberg’s deep brain stimulation therapy for intractable cases of depression
  • Updated discussion on Telehealth

Chapter 14: Stress, Health, and Well-Being

  • Added new paragraph to chapter opening vignette on 9/11 responders
  • Added a new photo and discussion of Japan’s 2011 earthquake in section on traumatic stressors
  • Reworked paragraph in Trauma in the Media section discussing vicarious traumatization
  • Added a new section: Cultural Variations in Response to Catastrophes about Japan
  • New paragraph and key term: targeted rejections
  • New Do It Yourself! The Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire: How Stressed Are You?
  • New reference to 2011 stress survey on money concerns in Societal Stressors section
  • Reworked section on burnout, including new KT: Job engagement, and new paragraph on organizational environment
  • New Figure: model of burnout and engagement
  • New paragraph in section on Daily Hassles on "waiting"
  • Updates made toPsychology Matters: Student Stress with new references
  • New reference in Tend and Befriend section on emotional support for women with breast cancer
  • Significant updates made to Stress and the Immune System section, including new section on Stress Ages Cells, New KT: telomeres
  • NewPsychology Matters: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats
  • Great new example of resilience: Christina Applegate
  • New paragraph on George Bonanno’s research on resilience and recovery
  • New paragraph on Sonja Lyubomirsky’s research on happiness
  • New photo in section on Defending versus Coping, explaining the dangers of smoking and using President Obama as an example of someone who has quit.

Table of Contents

 

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

 

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 

Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 4: Learning and Human Nature

Chapter 5: Memory

Chapter 6: Thinking and Human Intelligence

Chapter 7: Development over the Lifespan

Chapter 8: States of Consciousness

Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person

Chapter 11: Social Psychology 

Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders

Chapter 14: Stress, Health, and Well-Being 

 

COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS: 

 

Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science  

1.1 What Is Psychology – And What Is It Not?  

   Psychology: It’s More than You Think 

   Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 

   Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudopsychology 

   Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

1.3 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 

   Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological Perspective  

   The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern Cognitive Perspective  

   The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior  

   The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Trait and Temperament

   The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 

   The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 

   The Changing Face of Psychology 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major

1.2 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?  

   Four Steps in the Scientific Method

   Five Types of Psychological Research 

   Controlling Biases in Psychological Research  

   Ethical Issues in Psychological Research  

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudopsychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Facilitated Communication 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

 

Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 

   Evolution and Natural Selection 

   Genetics and Inheritance 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally?  

   The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 

   The Nervous System 

   The Endocrine System 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?  

   Windows on the Brain 

   Three Layers of the Brain

   Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex  

   Cerebral Dominance 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Left Brain vs. Right Brain 

Chapter Summary

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Chapter 4:  Learning and Human Nurture  

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

   The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 

   Applications of Classical Conditioning 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors by Operant Conditioning?  

   Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

   The Power of Reinforcement 

   The Problem of Punishment 

   A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 

   Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?  

   Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps 

   Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds out What’s on a Rat’s Mind 

   Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism  

   Rethinking Behavioral Learning in Cognitive Terms

   Brain Mechanisms and Learning 

   “Higher” Cognitive Learning 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 

Critical Thinking Applied: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 5: Memory

5.1 What Is Memory?  

   Metaphors for Memory  

   Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 

   The First Stage: Sensory Memory 

   The Second Stage: Working Memory

   The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories?  

   Implicit and Explicit Memory 

   Retrieval Cues 

   Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 

   Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 

   Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause Forgetting  

   Blocking: Access Problems 

   Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 

   Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 

   Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 

   Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 

   The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 

   Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Recovered Memory Controversy 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence  

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought?  

   Concepts 

   Imagery and Cognitive Maps  

   Thought and the Brain 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess?  

   Problem Solving 

   Judging and Making Decisions  

   On Becoming a Creative Genius 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured?  

   Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 

   American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea  

   Problems with the IQ Formula

   Calculating IQs “on the Curve”

   IQ Testing Today 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities?  

   Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

   Cognitive Theories of Intelligence  

   Cultural Definitions of Intelligence 

   Animals Can Be Intelligent–But Do They Think? 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups?  

   Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 

   What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced by Heredity? 

   What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced by Environment? 

   Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Question of Gender Differences 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 7: Development Over the Lifespan 

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess?  

   Prenatal Development

   The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child  

   Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success

7.2 What are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood?  

   How Children Acquire Language 

   Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 

   Social and Emotional Development 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Puzzle of ADHD 

7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence?  

   Adolescence and Culture 

   Physical Maturation in Adolescence 

   Adolescent Sexuality 

   Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 

   Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 

   Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face?  

   Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy  

   The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity  

   Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development

Critical Thinking Applied: The Mozart Effect 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 8: States of Consciousness 

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 

   Tools for Studying Consciousness

   Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 

   What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 

   Coma and Related States 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness?  

   Daydreaming 

   Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 

   Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take?  

   Hypnosis  

   Meditation 

   Psychoactive Drug States 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Unconscious–Reconsidered 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

9.1 What Motivates Us?

   Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory

   The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined?

   Instinct Theory

   Drive Theory

   Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory

   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

   Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy?

   Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological Motive

   The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies   

   Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us?

   What Emotions Are Made Of

   What Emotions Do for Us

   Counting the Emotions

   Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Both Biology and Culture 

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions?

   The Neuroscience of Emotion 

   Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U

   Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 

   How Much Conscious Control Do We Have over Our Emotions?

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception

Critical Thinking Applied: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities?  

   Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 

   The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 

   The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental Processes  

   Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People and Unusual Behavior

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 

   Personality and Temperament 

   Personality as a Composite of Traits 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 

10.3 What Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities?  

   Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation and Mental Disorder 

   Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 

   Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 

   Current Trends: The Person in a Social System

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others?  

   Implicit Personality Theories 

   Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 

   The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time

Critical Thinking Applied: The Person-Situation Controversy 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 11: Social Psychology  

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior?  

   Social Standards of Behavior 

   Conformity 

   Obedience to Authority 

   Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 

   Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience to Authority Paradigm

   The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 

   Need Help? Ask for It! 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 

   Interpersonal Attraction 

   Loving Relationships 

   Making Cognitive Attributions 

   Prejudice and Discrimination 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations that Influence Behavior?  

   The Stanford Prison Experiment

   Chains of System Command 

   Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing   

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Is Terrorism “A Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

 

Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders  

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder?  

   Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder  

   Indicators of Abnormality

   A Caution to Readers 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV?  

   Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 

   Mood Disorders 

   Anxiety Disorders  

   Somatoform Disorders

   Dissociative Disorders 

   Schizophrenia 

   Developmental Disorders

   Personality Disorders

   Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest Category of Them All 

   Gender Differences in Mental Disorders   

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Shyness 

12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People?  

   Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 

   The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders  

13.1 What Is Therapy?  

Entering Therapy

The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy  

Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders?  

Insight Therapies 

Behavior Therapies

Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 

Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders?  

Drug Therapy 

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 

Hospitalization and the Alternatives 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare?

Depression  and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus Medical Treatment  

Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical Treatment 

"The Worried Well" and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs Drugs 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Evidence-Based Practice 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 

 

Chapter 14: From Stress to Health, and Well-Being  

14.1 What Causes Distress?  

   Traumatic Stressors 

   Chronic Stressors 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically?  

   Physiological Responses to Stress 

   Stress and the Immune System 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress?  

   Type A Personality and Hostility 

   Locus of Control  

   Hardiness  

   Optimism 

   Resilience 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress into Positive Life Strategies?

   Psychological Coping Strategies 

   Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your Health 

   Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective Well-Being 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide