Campbell Biology Plus Mastering Biology Student Access Kit: Global Edition

Jane B. Reece / Lisa A Urry / Michael L. Cain / Steven A. Wasserman / Peter V. Minorsky / Robert B. Jackson
Februar 2011
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This is a Pearson Global Edition. The Pearson Editorial team worked closely with educators around the world to include content especially relevant to students outside of the United States.


Helping Students Make Connections Across Biology


Campbell BIOLOGY Global Edition is the unsurpassed leader in introductory biology. The text’s hallmark values–accuracy, currency, and passion for teaching and learning–have made it the most successful introductory biology book for eight consecutive editions.


Building on the Key Concepts chapter framework of previous editions, Campbell BIOLOGY Global Edition helps students keep sight of the “big picture” by encouraging them to:

  • Make connections across chapters in the text, from molecules to ecosystems, with new Make Connections Questions
  • Make connections between classroom learning, research breakthroughs, and the real world with new Impact Figures
  • Make connections to the overarching theme of evolution in every chapter with new Evolution sections
  • Make connections at a higher cognitive level through new Summary of Key Concepts Questions and Write About a Theme Questions
  • Make connections outside of class withMasteringBiology®, the most widely-used online assessment and tutorial program for biology

 Campbell BIOLOGY Global Edition makes biology more globally relevant through:

  • Significant new material in the diversity and ecology units, contributed by educators from around the globe.
  • International examples and photos, replacing some North American ones
  • Interviews with prominent international biologists, replacing some of the North American interviews


Each chapter is organized around a framework of three to six Key Concepts that provide the context for supporting details, helping students to distinguish the forest from the trees.

  • The Key Concepts are presented at the beginning of the chapter to orient students to the main ideas of the chapter. The Overview and chapter opening question engage students and set the stage for the chapter content.
  • Numbered Concept Heads remind students of the main ideas as they begin each section of the chapter and make it easy for instructors to assign selected sections.
  • Concept Check Questions at the end of each section provide a hierarchical framework for self-assessment that builds students’ confidence and then challenges them to push the limits of their understanding with two types of critical thinking questions: What if? Questions, which ask students to apply what they’ve learned, and new Make Connections Questions, which ask students to relate material to what they learned in an earlier chapter.
  • The end-of-chapter Summary of Key Concepts refocuses students on the main points, emphasizing the chapter’s organizational structure. Summary diagrams provide a visual review of the material and new Summary of Key Concepts Questions enable students to check their understanding of a key learning goal for each Key Concept.

The text engages students in scientific inquiry, revealing “how we know what we know” and helping students develop their critical thinking and inquiry skills.

  • New Impact Figures motivate and inspire students by demonstrating the impact of biology research on their daily lives, the field of biology, and global problems. Each Impact Figure includes a discussion of Why It Matters, suggests articles for Further Reading, and concludes with a What if? or Make Connections Question.
  • Inquiry Figures help students understand the experimental basis of biological knowledge and provide a model of how to think like a scientist:
    • Each Inquiry Figure begins with a research question and then explores how researchers designed an experiment, interpreted their results, and drew conclusions.
    • Each Inquiry Figure references the source article for the experiment, encouraging students to extend their learning by exploring the primary literature.
    • Each Inquiry Figure concludes with a What if? Question that asks students to consider an alternative scenario. These questions can serve as discussion starters for active learning in lecture, discussion sections, or student study groups.
    • Selected Inquiry Figures invite students to read and analyze the original research article in the supplement Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers.
  • Research Method Figures illustrate important techniques in biology.
  • Scientific Inquiry Questions at the end of each chapter give students more opportunities to practice critical thinking by developing hypotheses, designing experiments, and analyzing real research data.  
  • In the Global Edition, we have replaced some of the North American interviews with renowned researchers from outside North America to inspire students and show them the human side of science.
  • Carefully crafted figures help visual learners understand complex structures and processes and organize material into a clear hierarchy of ideas.
  • New Visual Organizers highlight the hierarchy of information in multipart figures to help students understand and study the material.
  • Exploring Figures help students access information efficiently by integrating text and visuals.
  • Guided Tour diagrams walk students through a figure like an instructor would, pointing out key structures, functions, and steps of processes.
  • In selected figures, a three-dimensional art style helps students visualize biological structures.
  • Figure legend questions prompt students to delve into a figure’s content and assess their understanding.

MasteringBiology is an online learning and assessment system proven to help students learn. It helps instructors maximize class time with customizable, easy-to-assign, and automatically graded assessments that motivate students to learn outside of class and arrive prepared for lecture. The powerful gradebook provides unique insight into student and class performance. As a result, instructors can spend class time where students need it most. MasteringBiology empowers students to take charge of their learning through assignable tutorials, activities, and questions aimed at different learning styles. It engages students in learning biology through practice and step-by-step guidance—at their convenience, 24/7.

  • New items include Data Analysis Tutorials, Student Misconceptions Questions, Make Connections Tutorials, Experimental Inquiry Tutorials, Video Tutor Sessions, and an optional upgrade to include Virtual Labs.
  • Pre-built Reading Quizzes allow instructors to create quick and easy assignments in MasteringBiology to make sure students read the book before class. Instructors can easily edit the questions and answers or import their own questions.
  • BioFlix® 3-D Animations and Tutorials cover the most difficult biology topics with assignable tutorials plus self-study modules that include movie-quality animations, labeled slide shows, carefully constructed student tutorials, study sheets, and quizzes that support all types of learners. Topics include A Tour of the Animal Cell, A Tour of the Plant Cell, Membrane Transport, Cellular Respiration, Photosynthesis, Mitosis, Meiosis, DNA Replication, Protein Synthesis, Mechanisms of Evolution, Water Transport in Plants, Homeostasis: Regulating Blood Sugar, Gas Exchange, Immunology, How Neurons Work, How Synapses Work, Muscle Contraction, Population Ecology, and The Carbon Cycle.
  • The Study Area can be used by students on their own or in a study group. The Study Area includes a grading rubric for the Write About a Theme questions, revised Practice Tests and Cumulative Tests, BioFlix 3-D Animations, MP3 Tutor Sessions, Videos, Activities, Investigations, GraphIt!, Lab Media, Glossary with audio pronunciations, Word Study Tools (Word Roots, Key Terms, and Flashcards), and Art.
  • The Instructor Resources area includes PowerPoint® lectures, clicker questions, Jpeg images, animations, videos, lecture outlines, learning objectives, strategies for overcoming common student misconceptions, Instructor Guides for supplements, a suggested grading rubric for grading short-answer essays, essay question suggested answers, test bank files, and lab media.
  • The Pearson eText includes powerful interactive and customization features, such as the ability to search, type notes, highlight text, create bookmarks, zoom, click hyperlinked words to view definitions, and link to media activities and quizzes. Professors can write notes and highlight material for their class using a new tool that works like an electronic pen on a whiteboard.

New to this Edition

Make Connections Questions help students see how the different areas of biology are connected, from molecules to organisms to ecosystems.

    • Each Make Connections Question challenges students to move beyond memorization and gain a deeper understanding of biological principles by asking them to relate the content of a chapter to what they learned earlier in the course.
    • Make Connections Questions are integrated into each chapter in selected Concept Checks, figure legends, Impact Figures, and in the end-of-chapter assessment section. Every chapter has at least three Make Connections Questions.
    • Make Connections Tutorials in MasteringBiology® connect content from two different chapters using art from the book.

Impact Figures motivate and inspire students by demonstrating the dramatic impact of recent discoveries in biology.

    • Impact Figures explore high-interest topics such as induced pluripotent stem cells and regenerative medicine (Chapter 20), the discovery of Tiktaalik (Chapter 34), and the use of forensic ecology to track elephant poaching (Chapter 56).
    • Captivating visuals in Impact Figures engage students.
    • TheWhy It Matters section explains the relevance of the research to students’ lives, global problems, and the field of biology itself.
    • Each Impact Figure ends with a suggested article forFurther Reading and aWhat if? or Make Connections Question to develop critical thinking skills.

Campbell’s emphasis on evolution is more evident for students than ever before: At least one Evolution section in every chapter explicitly focuses on evolutionary aspects of the chapter material. These Evolution sections, highlighted by a new Evolution banner, demonstrate to students that evolution is central to every area of biology. Many Evolution sections contain new or updated material.


Restructured Chapter Reviews help students master the chapter content more effectively and make it easier for instructors to assign review questions that are consistent with the level of questions that are provided in the Campbell Test Bank:

    • New Summary of Key Concepts Questions tie in to a main learning goal and actively engage students as they read the summary.
    • All end-of-chapter questions, including the essay questions, have been reorganized according to Bloom’s Taxonomy to encourage higher-level thinking and better prepare students for the kinds of questions they will see on exams. The questions are organized into three levels: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis, and Synthesis/Evaluation. These are the same levels used in the Campbell Test Bank.
    • New Write About a Theme Questions ask students to write a short essay connecting the chapter’s content to one of the bookwide themes introduced in Chapter 1. A grading rubric are provided for students in the MasteringBiology Study Area. The same grading rubric and sample answers are provided in the MasteringBiology Instructor Resources area.
    • A New MasteringBiology® section at the end of each chapter lists tutorials, activities, and questions that instructors can assign. This section also directs students to the eText and Study Area for additional resources.

Figures throughout the Ninth Edition have been updated and revised for clarity.

    • New Visual Organizers emphasize the hierarchy of information in multipart figures, helping students to efficiently access the material.
    • Selected figures have been rendered in a 3-D art style to enhance understanding. These figures have been carefully developed to provide a balance between realism and teaching effectiveness.

Expanded MasteringBiology® online resources include:

    • Improved User Interface: MasteringBiology has been streamlined to make the system more user-friendly and efficient. Changes include the reorganization of the Item Library to match the Key Concepts structure in the text.
    • Make Connections Tutorials ask students to relate figures from two different chapters to make connections between topics covered in different parts of the course.
    • Experimental Inquiry Tutorials allow students to replicate a classic biology experiment and learn the conceptual aspects of experimental design. Students can critically evaluate the experiment and make decisions about how to set up, interpret, assess, and evaluate other experiments.
    • Data Analysis Tutorials connect students with real data from online databases and guide them in analyzing and interpreting data in a controlled environment.
    • Student Misconceptions Questions: Assignable questions for each chapter address common student misconceptions, providing feedback to students to help them correct their misconceptions. The instructor can see which common misconceptions are proving most challenging for the class as a whole. In the Instructor Resources area, the instructor is provided with effective in-class strategies for overcoming these misconceptions.
    • Video Tutor Sessions walk students through tough topics with clearly explained visuals and demonstrations.
    • MasteringBiology:Virtual Labs online environment promotes critical thinking skills using virtual experiments and explorations that may be difficult to perform in a wet-lab environment due to time, cost, or safety concerns.  A discounted package price is available for students to access the virtual labs using the same login and password that they would use for their Campbell 9/e MasteringBiology resources. 


This section provides just a few highlights of new content and organizational improvements in Campbell BIOLOGY, Ninth Edition.


Chapter 1Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life 

We have added a separate new theme on energy flow while retaining a theme on environmental interactions. Concept 1.3, on the scientific method, has been reframed to more accurately reflect the scientific process, with a focus on observations and hypotheses. A new Concept 1.4 discusses the value of technology to society while emphasizing the cooperative nature of science and the value of diversity among scientists.


Unit One  The Chemistry of Life

For this edition, the basic chemistry is enlivened by new content connecting it to evolution, ecology, and other areas of biology. Examples of new material include omega-3 fatty acids, the isomeric forms of methamphetamine, arsenic contamination of groundwater, and the basis of mad cow disease. The burgeoning importance of nucleic acids throughout biology has prompted us to expand our coverage of DNA and RNA structures in this first unit. In fact, a general aim for the first two units is to infuse the chapters with more detail about nucleic acids, genes, and related topics. Another enhancement, in this and the next two units, is the inclusion of more computer models of important proteins in contexts where they support students’ understanding of molecular function.


Unit Two  The Cell



For Chapter 6, we developed an Exploring Figure on microscopy, which includes new types of microscopy, and we added micrographs of various cell types to the Exploring Figure on eukaryotic cells. We also expanded our description of chromosome composition, with the goal of preempting some common student misconceptions about chromosomes and DNA. New connections to evolution include an introduction to the endosymbiont theory in Chapter 6 and some interesting evolutionary adaptations of cell membranes in Chapter 7. We’ve added a new section to Chapter 8 on the evolution of enzymes with new functions, which not only strengthens enzyme coverage but also provides an early introduction to the concept that mutations contribute to molecular evolution. In Chapter 9, we simplified the glycolysis figure and emphasized pyruvate oxidation as a separate step to help students focus on the main ideas. In keeping with our increased focus on global issues in the Ninth Edition, Chapter 10 has an Impact Figure on biofuels and a discussion of the possible effect of climate change on the distribution of C3 and C4 plants. In Chapter 11, we have added an Impact Figure to highlight the importance and medical relevance of G protein-coupled receptors.


Unit Three  Genetics

In Chapters 13–17, we have added material to stimulate student interest—for example, a new Impact Figure on genetic testing for disease-associated mutations. As done throughout the Ninth Edition, we ask students to make connections between chapters so that they avoid the trap of compartmentalizing the information in each chapter. For instance, Chapter 15 discusses the Philadelphia chromosome associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia and asks students to connect this information to what they learned about signaling in the cell cycle in Chapter 12. Also, we encourage students to connect what they learn about DNA replication and chromosome structure in Chapter 16 to the material on chromosome behavior during the cell cycle in Chapter 12. Chapter 16 has a new figure showing a current 3-D model of the DNA replication complex, with the lagging strand looping back through it.


Chapters 18–21 are extensively updated, with the changes dominated by new genomic sequence data and discoveries about the regulation of gene expression. (The introduction to genes, genomes, and gene expression in Units One and Two should help prepare students for these revisions.) Chapter 18 includes a new section on nuclear architecture, which describes the organization of chromatin in the nucleus in relation to gene expression. The roles of various types of RNA molecules in regulation also receive special attention. In the section on cancer, we describe how technical advances can contribute to personalized cancer treatments based on the molecular characteristics of an individual's tumor. Chapter 19 discusses the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic. Chapter 20 includes advances in techniques for DNA sequencing and for obtaining induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Finally, the heavily revised Chapter 21 describes what has been learned from the sequencing of many genomes, including those of a number of human individuals.


Unit Four  Mechanisms of Evolution

For this edition, we have continued to bolster our presentation of the vast evidence for evolution by adding new examples and figures that illustrate key conceptual points throughout the unit. For example, Chapter 22 now presents research data on adaptive evolution in soapberry bugs, fossil findings that shed light on the origins of cetaceans, and an Impact Figure on the rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chapter 23 examines gene flow and adaptation in songbird populations. Chapter 24 incorporates several new examples of speciation research, including reproductive isolation in mosquitofish, speciation in shrimp, and hybridization of bear species. Other changes strengthen the storyline of the unit, ensuring that the chapters flow smoothly and build to a clear overall picture of what evolution is and how it works. For instance, new connections between Chapters 24 and 25 illustrate how differences in speciation and extinction rates shape the broad patterns in the history of life. We’ve also added earlier and more discussion of “tree thinking,” the interpretation and application of phylogenetic trees, beginning in Chapter 22.


Unit Five  The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity

One of our goals for the diversity unit was to expand the coverage of the scientific evidence underlying the evolutionary story told in the chapters. So, for example, Chapter 27 now presents new findings on the evolutionary origin of bacterial flagella. In keeping with our increased emphasis on big-picture “tree thinking,” we’ve added an “evogram” on tetrapod evolution in Chapter 34. (An evogram is a diagram illustrating the multiple lines of evidence that support the hypothesis shown in an evolutionary tree.) In addition, to help engage students, we’ve included new applications and woven more ecological information into our discussions of groups of organisms. Examples include new material on global growth of photosynthetic protists (Chapter 28), endangered molluscs (Chapter 33), and the impact of a pathogenic chytrid fungus on amphibian population declines (Chapters 31 and 34).


Unit Six  Plant Form and Function

Plant biology is in a transitional phase; some professors prefer strong coverage of classical botany while others seek more in-depth coverage of the molecular biology of plants. In developing the Ninth Edition, we have continued to balance the old and the new to provide students with a basic understanding of plant anatomy and function while highlighting dynamic areas of plant research and the many important connections between plants and other organisms. One major revision goal was to provide more explicit discussion of the evolutionary aspects of plant biology, such as the coevolution of insects and animal pollinators (Chapter 38). Updates include new findings in plant development in Concept 35.5 and new material on the dynamism of plant architecture as it relates to resource acquisition in Chapter 36.


Unit Seven  Animal Form and Function

In revising this unit, we strove to introduce physiological systems through a comparative approach that underscores how adaptations are linked to shared physiological challenges. In particular, we have highlighted the interrelationship of the endocrine and nervous systems at multiple points in the unit, helping students appreciate how these two forms of communication link tissues, organs, and individuals. Other revisions aim to keep students focused on fundamental concepts amid the details of complex systems. For example, many figures have been reconceived to emphasize key information, including new figures comparing single and double circulation (Chapter 42) and examining the function of antigen receptors (Chapter 43), as well as new Exploring Figures on the vertebrate kidney (Chapter 44) and the structure and function of the eye (Chapter 50). Chapter 43 has been significantly revised to support students’ conceptual understanding of basic immunological responses and the key cellular players. Throughout the unit, new state-of-the-art images and material on current and compelling topics—such as circadian rhythms (Chapter 40), novel strains of influenza (Chapter 43), the effects of climate change on animal reproductive cycles (Chapter 46), and advances in understanding brain plasticity and function (Chapter 49)—will help engage students and encourage them to make connections beyond the text.


Unit Eight  Ecology

Our revision was informed by the fact that biologists are increasingly asked to apply their knowledge to help solve global problems, such as climate change, that already are profoundly affecting life on Earth. As part of our increased emphasis on global ecology in this edition, we have made significant changes to Unit Eight’s organization and content. The organizational changes begin with the introductory chapter of the unit (Chapter 52), which includes a new Key Concept 52.1: “Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly.” Introducing the global nature of climate and its effects on life at the beginning of the chapter provides a logical foundation for the rest of the material. New content in Chapters 53 and 54 highlights factors that limit population growth, the ecological importance of disease, positive interactions among organisms, and biodiversity. Chapter 55 now explores restoration ecology together with ecosystem ecology because successful restoration efforts depend on understanding ecosystem structure and function. Finally, the new title of the unit’s capstone, Chapter 56, reflects its emphasis on the combined importance of conservation and our changing Earth: “Conservation Biology and Global Change.” Several new Impact Figures in the unit show students how ecologists apply biological knowledge and ecological theory at all scales to understand and solve problems in the world around them.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life



 2. The Chemical Context of Life

 3. Water and Life

 4. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules



 6. A Tour of the Cell

 7. Membrane Structure and Function

 8. An Introduction to Metabolism

 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

10. Photosynthesis

11. Cell Communication

12. The Cell Cycle



13. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

14. Mendel and the Gene Idea

15. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

16. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

17. From Gene to Protein

18. Regulation of Gene Expression

19. Viruses

20. Biotechnology

21. Genomes and Their Evolution



22. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

23. The Evolution of Populations

24. The Origin of Species

25. The History of Life on Earth



26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

27. Bacteria and Archaea

28. Protists

29. Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land

30. Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants

31. Fungi

32. An Overview of Animal Diversity

33. An Introduction to Invertebrates

34. The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates



35. Plant Structure, Growth, and Development

36. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants

37. Soil and Plant Nutrition

38. Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology

39. Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals



40. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

41. Animal Nutrition

42. Circulation and Gas Exchange

43. The Immune System

44. Osmoregulation and Excretion

45. Hormones and the Endocrine System

46. Animal Reproduction

47. Animal Development

48. Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

49. Nervous Systems

50. Sensory and Motor Mechanisms

51. Animal Behavior



52. An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

53. Population Ecology

54. Community Ecology

55. Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

56. Conservation Biology and Global Change


Jane B. Reece

As Neil Campbell’s longtime collaborator, Jane Reece has participated in every edition of BIOLOGY. Earlier, Jane taught biology at Middlesex County College and Queensborough Community College. Her research as a doctoral student and postdoc focused on genetic recombination in bacteria. Besides her work on BIOLOGY, she has been a coauthor on Biology: Concepts & Connections, Essential Biology, and The World of the Cell.


Lisa A. Urry

Lisa Urry (Units 1-3) is a professor and developmental biologist, and recent Chair of the Biology Department, at Mills College. After graduating from Tufts University with a double major in Biology and French, Lisa completed her Ph.D. in molecular and developmental biology at MIT. She has published a number of research papers, most of them focused on gene expression during embryonic and larval development in sea urchins. Lisa is also deeply committed to promoting opportunities for women in science education and research.


Michael L. Cain

Michael Cain (Units 4 and 5) is an ecologist and evolutionary biologist who is now writing full time. Michael earned a joint degree in Biology and Math at Bowdoin College, an M.Sc. from Brown University, and a Ph.D. in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from Cornell University. As a faculty member at New Mexico State University and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, he taught a wide range of courses including introductory biology, ecology, evolution, botany, and conservation biology. . Michael is the author of dozens of scientific papers on topics that include foraging behavior in insects and plants, long-distance seed dispersal, and speciation in crickets. In addition to his work on Campbell BIOLOGY, Michael is also the lead author of an ecology textbook.


Steven A. Wasserman

Steve Wasserman (Unit 7) is a professor at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He earned his A.B. in Biology from Harvard University and his Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from MIT. Through his research on regulatory pathway mechanisms in the fruit fly Drosophila, Steve has contributed to the fields of developmental biology, reproduction, and immunity. As a faculty member at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and UCSD, he has taught genetics, development, and physiology to undergraduate, graduate, and medical students. He has also served as the research mentor for more than a dozen doctoral students and more than 50 aspiring scientists at the undergraduate and high school levels. Steve has been the recipient of distinguished scholar awards from both the Markey Charitable Trust and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. In 2007, he received UCSD’s Distinguished Teaching Award for undergraduate teaching.


Peter V. Minorsky

Peter Minorsky (Unit 6) is a professor at Mercy College in New York, where he teaches evolution, ecology, botany, and introductory biology. He received his B.A. in Biology from Vassar College and his Ph.D. in Plant Physiology from Cornell University. He is also the science writer for the journal Plant Physiology. After a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Peter taught at Kenyon College, Union College, Western Connecticut State University, and Vassar College. He is an electrophysiologist who studies plant responses to stress. Peter received the 2008 Award for Teaching Excellence at Mercy College.

Robert B. Jackson

Rob Jackson (Unit 8) is a professor of biology and Nicholas Chair of Environmental Sciences at Duke University. Rob holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Rice University, as well as M.S. degrees in Ecology and Statistics and a Ph.D. in Ecology from Utah State University. Rob directed Duke’s Program in Ecology for many years and just finished a term as the Vice President of Science for the Ecological Society of America. Rob has received numerous awards, including a Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering from the National Science Foundation. He also enjoys popular writing, having published a trade book about the environment, The Earth Remains Forever, and two books of poetry for children, Animal Mischief and Weekend Mischief.


Neil A. Campbell

Neil Campbell combined the investigative nature of a research scientist with the soul of an experienced and caring teacher. He earned his M.A. in Zoology from UCLA and his Ph.D. in Plant Biology from the University of California, Riverside, where he received the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2001. Neil published numerous research articles on desert and coastal plants and how the sensitive plant (Mimosa) and other legumes move their leaves. His 30 years of teaching in diverse environments included general biology courses at Cornell University, Pomona College, and San Bernardino Valley College, where he received the college’s first Outstanding Professor Award in 1986. Neil was a visiting scholar in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. In addition to his authorship of this book, he coauthored Biology: Concepts & Connections and Essential Biology with Jane Reece. For the Ninth Edition of this book, we honor Neil’s contributions to biology education by adopting the title Campbell BIOLOGY.


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