Chemical and Bio-Process Control:International Edition

James B. Riggs / M. Nazmul Karim
Februar 2008
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Key features:

  • Industrially relevant approach to chemical and bio-process control
  • Fully revised edition with substantial enhancements to the theoretical coverage of the subject
  • Increased number and variety of examples
  • Extensively revised homework problems with degree-of-diffi culty rating added
  • Expanded and enhanced chapter on model predictive control
  • Self-assessment questions and problems at the end of most sections with answers listed in the appendix
  • Bio-process control coverage:
    • Background and history of bio-processing and bio-process control added to the introductory chapter
    • Discussion and analysis of the primary bio-sensors used in bio-tech industries added to the chapter on control loop hardware
    • Signifi cant proportion of examples and homework problems in the text deal with bio-processes
    • Section on troubleshooting bio-process control systems included
    • Bio-related process models added to the modeling chapter
  • Supplemental material:
    • Visual basic simulator of process models developed in text
    • Solutions manual
    • Set of PowerPoint lecture slides
    • Collection of process control exams

All supplemental material can be found at

Table of Contents

PART I: INTRODUCTIONChapter1: Introduction     3

1.1 Chemical and Bio-Process Control; 1.2 Everyday Examples of Process Control; 1.3 Control Diagrams and P&IDs; 1.4 Industrial Process Control Examples; 1.5 Block Diagram of a General Feedback Control System; 1.6 Types of Controllers; 1.7 Responsibilities of a Chemical Process Control Engineer; 1.8 Operator Acceptance; 1.9 Process Control and Process Optimization; 1.10 Summary

Chapter: 2 Control Loop Hardware     35

2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Control Systems; 2.3 Actuator Systems (Final Control Elements); 2.4 Sensor Systems; 2.5 Summary

PART II: PROCESS DYNAMICSChapter 3: Dynamic Modeling     87

3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Uses of Dynamic Models; 3.3 Classification of Phenomenological Models; 3.4 Dynamic Balance Equations; 3.5 Modeling Examples; 3.6 Sensor Noise; 3.7 Numerical Integration of ODEs; 3.8 Summary

Chapter 4: Laplace Transforms     133

4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Laplace Transforms; 4.3 Laplace Transform Solutions of Linear Differential Equations; 4.4 Individual Real Poles; 4.5 Repeated Real Poles; 4.6 Complex Poles; 4.7 Summary

Chapter 5: Transfer Functions     157

5.1 Introduction; 5.2 General Characteristics of Transfer Functions; 5.3 Poles of a Transfer Function; 5.4 Stability Analysis Using the Routh Array; 5.5 Zeros of a Transfer Function; 5.6 Block Diagrams using Transfer Functions; 5.7 Linearization of Nonlinear Differential Equations; 5.8 State Space Models; 5.9 Transfer Functions from State Space Models; 5.10 Summary

Chapter 6: Dynamic Behavior of Ideal Systems     201

6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Idealized Process Inputs; 6.3 First-Order Processes; 6.4 Second-Order Processes; 6.5 Integrating Processes; 6.6 High-Order Processes; 6.7 Deadtime; 6.8 First Order Plus Deadtime (FOPDT) Model; 6.9 Inverse-Acting Processes; 6.10 Lead-Lag Element; 6.11 Recycle Processes; 6.12 Summary

PART III: PID CONTROLChapter 7: PID Control     235

7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions; 7.3 Analysis of P, I, and D Action; 7.4 Position Forms of the PID Algorithm; 7.5 Velocity Forms of the PID Algorithm; 7.6 Interactive Form of the PID Controller; 7.7 Direct- and Reverse-Acting Controllers; 7.8 Filtering of Sensor Measurements; 7.9 Controller Design Issues; 7.10 Commonly Encountered Control Loops; 7.11 Summary

Chapter 8: PID Controller Tuning     279

8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Effect of Tuning Parameters on P-only Control; 8.3 Effect of Tuning Parameters on PI Control; 8.4 Effect of Tuning Parameters on PID Control; 8.5 Summary

Chapter 9: PID Controller Tuning     297

9.1 Introduction; 9.2 Tuning Criteria and Performance Assessment; 9.3 Classical Tuning Methods; 9.4 Controller Tuning by Pole Placement; 9.5 PID Tuning Based on Internal Model Control (IMC); 9.6 Controller Reliability; 9.7 Selection of Tuning Criterion; 9.8 Tuning the Filter on Sensor Readings; 9.9 Recommended Approach to Controller Tuning; 9.10 Tuning Fast-Responding Control Loops; 9.11 Tuning Slow-Responding Control Loops; 9.12 PID Tuning; 9.13 Tuning Level Controllers; 9.14 Control Interval; 9.15 Summary

Chapter 10: Troubleshooting Control Loops     343

10.1 Introduction; 10.2 Overall Approach to Troubleshooting; 10.3 Troubleshooting Control Loop in the CPI; 10.4 Troubleshooting Control Loop for Bio-Processes; 10.5 Summary

Chapter 11: Frequency Response Analysis     359

11.1 Introduction; 11.2 Bode Plot; 11.3 Bode Stability Criterion, Gain Margin and Phase Margin; 11.4 Pulse Tests; 11.5 Nyquist Diagrams; 11.6 Closed-Loop Frequency Response; 11.7 Summary

PART IV: ADVANCED PID CONTROLChapter 12: Cascade, Ratio, and Feedforward Control     381

12.1 Introduction; 12.2 Cascade Control; 12.3 Ratio Control; 12.4 Feedforward Control; 12.5 Summary

Chapter 13: PID Enhancements     409

13.1 Introduction; 13.2 Inferential Control; 13.3 Scheduling Controller Tuning; 13.4 Override/Select Control; 13.5 Computed Manipulated Variable Control; 13.6 Summary

Chapter 14: PID Implementation Issues     431

14.1 Introduction; 14.2 Anti-windup Strategies; 14.3 Bumpless Transfer; 14.4 Split-Range Control; 14.5 Summary

PART V: CONTROL OF MIMO PROCESSESChapter 15: PID Controllers Applied to MIMO Systems     441

15.1 Introduction; 15.2 SISO Controllers and (c, y) Pairings; 15.3 Steady-State Coupling; 15.4 Dynamic Factors in Configuration Selection; 15.5 Sensitivity to Disturbances; 15.6 Tuning Decentralized Controllers; 15.7 Decouplers; 15.8 Summary

Chapter 16: Model Predictive Controller     461

16.1 Introduction; 16.2 Step Response Models (SRMs); 16.3 The Dynamic Matrix; 16.4 Moving Horizon Controller; 16.5 Prediction Vector; 16.6 DMC Controller; 16.7 Extension to MIMO Processes; 16.8 Application of DMC for Constraint Control; 16.9 Combining an LP with DMC; 16.10 DMC Model Identification; 16.11 Organization of an Industrial MPC Application Project; 16.12 Summary

Chapter 17: Multi-Unit Controller Design     491

17.1 Introduction; 17.2 Approach; 17.3 Distillation Column; 17.4 Recycle Reactor Process; 17.5 Summary

Chapter 18: Case Studies     505

18.1 Introduction; 18.2 Heat Exchanger Control; 18.3 CSTR Temperature Control; 18.4 Distillation Control; 18.5 pH Control; 18.6 Summary

Appendix A: Answers to Self-Assessment Questions and Problems     539Appendix B: Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams     559Appendix C: Pseudo-Random Number Generator     563Appendix D: Signal Filtering     565Index     569


James B. Riggs has been a professor of chemical engineering at Texas Tech University since 1983. He received his BS and MS degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. He co-founded the Texas Tech Process Control and Optimization Consortium ( in 1992 and has more than 80 technical publications on process modeling, control and optimization. He is the author of An Introduction to Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers (1988, 1994) and co-author of Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition (2004). In addition, he has a total of over five years industrial experience.

M. Nazmul Karim is a professor and the Department Chair of Chemical Engineering at Texas Tech University. He received the BSc. (Honors) degree in Chemical Engineering from the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka. He earned his MSc. degree in Control Engineering and Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, U.K. Before joining Texas Tech University in 2004, he taught at Colorado State University for more than twenty years. He has published widely in the area of bio-process control. Dr. Karim was the Director of the Advanced Industrial Bio-Processing Short Course, which he offered at Colorado State University for over twenty years. More than 130 companies have participated in this course. Dr. Karim has co-authored seventy refereed journal papers and published hundreds of conference papers, and has given numerous invited and keynote talks in professional meetings. He has co-edited a book, Modeling and Control of Biotechnical Processes 1992, with Professor Gregory Stepanopoulos (MIT). He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.