Introduction to Chemical Principles

Prentice Hall
H. Stephen Stoker  
Total pages
January 2013
Related Titles


Newly updated based on extensive reviewer feedback, this introductory text remains focused on the essentials necessary for success in General Chemistry. Introduction to Chemistry Principles, Eleventh Edition focuses on the most important topics – omitting organic and biochemistry chapters – and teaches the problem-solving skills students need. Each topic is introduced and developed step by step until reaching the level of sophistication required for further course work. This two-color paperback is available through the Pearson Custom Library, giving you the flexibility to choose course content while controlling the cost of the text to your student.


  • Emphasis on problem solving throughout uses dimensional analysis whenever possible. This equips students with a powerful and widely applicable tool that requires no mathematics beyond arithmetic and elementary algebra.
  • Worked examples with detailed commentary show students the proper way to mentally dissect and solve a problem.
  • Over 5,000 questions and problems give students more opportunities than any other text to become proficient problem-solvers.
  • Emphasis on significant figure concepts in all problem-solving situations provides two answers to the example: the calculator answer (which does not take into account significant digits), and the correct answer (which is the calculator answer adjusted to the correct number of significant figures).
  • The Human Side of Chemistry vignettes are brief biographies of scientists who helped develop the foundations of modern chemistry.
  • Chemical  Insights add perspective to worked-out examples that center on specific compounds. It focuses on the chemical compound itself, its relationship to the environment, its relationship to living systems (biochemistry), etc. This helps students become aware of the compound's “realness,” and not lose themselves in the mathematics of problem solving.
  • Answer Double Check, found in the majority of worked-out problems, encourages students to consider if their solution is a "reasonable answer" in terms of numerical magnitude, number of significant figures present, sign convention (plus or minus) and direction of change (increase or decrease).
  • Multiple-Choice Practice Test questions in the end-of chapter reviews help students prepare for exams.

New to this Edition

  • Reorganized Chapter 4 (Basic Concepts About Matter) and Chapter 5 (Atoms, Molecules, and Subatomic Particles) to ensure smoother flow of content.  
  • Reorganized Chapter 13: Material dealing with the use of the molarity concentration unit in chemical calculations now immediately follows the introduction of the concept of molarity.
  • NEW! Student Learning Focus for each chapter clearly identify key concepts and provide a guide for effective studying.
  • NEW! “Chemical Insights” are used to bridge the gap between mathematics and chemistry. This new feature, which is appended to many of the worked-out example problems that involve calculations, focuses on the element or compound that is the subject of the calculation so students can learn the “realness” of the matter rather than just focusing on the calculations.
  • Updated Worked Examples feature the most current chemistry topics. Accompanied by extensive commentary, these problems–which are worked out in detail–are one of the greatest strengths of this text.
  • Reorganized margin notes provide additional details, links between concepts, or historical information about the concepts under discussion. They summarize key concepts and give students tips for remembering concepts or distinguishing between similar concepts.

Table of Contents

NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Concepts to Remember, Key Terms, Practice Problems, Multi-Concept Problems and Multiple-Choice Practice Test.


Chapter 1: The Science of Chemistry

1.1 Chemistry–A Scientific Discipline

1.2 Scientific Research and Technology

1.3 The Scope of Chemistry

1.4 How Chemists Discover Things–The Scientific Method

1.5 The Limitations of the Scientific Method

1.6  Application Limitations for Methods of Science

Chapter 2 Numbers from Measurements

2.1 The Importance of Measurement

2.2 Exact and Inexact Numbers

2.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Error

2.4 Uncertainty in Measurements

2.5 Significant Figures

2.6 Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations

2.7 Expressing Numbers in Scientific Notation

2.8 Mathematical Operations in Scientific Notation

Chapter 3 Unit Systems and Dimensional Analysis

3.1 The Metric System of Units

3.2 Metric Units of Length

3.3 Metric Units of Mass

3.4 Metric Units of Volume

3.5 Units in Mathematical Operations

3.6 Conversion Factors

3.7 Dimensional Analysis

3.8 Density

3.9 Equivalence Conversion Factors Other Than Density

3.10 Percentage and Percent Error

3.11 Temperature Scales

Chapter 4 Basic Concepts About Matter

4.1 Chemistry–The Study of Matter

4.2 Physical States of Matter

4.3 Properties of Matter

4.4 Changes in Matter

4.5 Pure Substances and Mixtures

4.6 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures

4.7 Elements and Compounds

4.8 Discovery and Abundance of the ElementsTHE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 1: Joseph Priestley (1733—1804)

4.9 Names and Chemical Symbols of the Elements

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 2: Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779—1848)

Chapter 5 Atoms, Molecules, and Subatomic Particles

5.1 The Atom

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 3: John Dalton (1766—1844)

5.2 The Molecule

5.3 Natural and Synthetic Compounds

5.4 Chemical Formulas

5.5 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

5.6 Atomic Number and Mass Number

5.7 Isotopes

5.8 Atomic Masses

5.9 Evidence Supporting the Existence and Arrangement of Subatomic Particles

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 4: Ernest Rutherford (1871—1937)

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Chemical Periodicity

6.1 The Periodic Law

6.2 The Periodic Table

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 5: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834—1907)

6.3 The Energy of an Electron

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 6: Erwin Schrödinger (1887—1961)

6.4 Electron Shells

6.5 Electron Subshells

6.6 Electron Orbitals

6.7 Electron Configurations

6.8 Electron Orbital Diagrams

6.9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Law

6.10 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

6.11 Classification Systems for the Elements

6.12 Chemical Periodicity

Chapter 7 Chemical Bonds

7.1 Types of Chemical Bonds

7.2 Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 7: Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875—1946)

7.3 The Octet Rule

7.4 The Ionic Bond Model

7.5 The Sign and Magnitude of Ionic Charge

7.6 Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds

7.7 Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds

7.8 Structure of Ionic Compounds

7.9 Polyatomic Ions

7.10 The Covalent Bond Model

7.11 Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds

7.12 Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds

7.13 Valence Electron Count and Number of Covalent Bonds Formed

7.14 Coordinate Covalent Bonds

7.15 Resonance Structures

7.16 Systematic Procedures for Drawing Lewis Structures

7.17 Molecular Geometry

7.18 Electronegativity

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 8: Linus Carl Pauling (1901—1994)

7.19 Bond Polarity

7.20 Molecular Polarity

Chapter 8 Chemical Nomenclature

8.1 Classification of Compounds for Nomenclature Purposes

8.2 Types of Binary Ionic Compounds

8.3 Nomenclature for Binary Ionic Compounds

8.4 Chemical Formulas for Polyatomic Ions

8.5 Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

8.6 Nomenclature for Binary Molecular Compounds

8.7 Nomenclature for Acids

8.8 System Procedures for Using Nomenclature Rules

Chapter 9 Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas

9.1 The Law of Definite Proportions

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 9: Joseph-Louis Proust (1754—1826)

9.2 Calculation of Formula Masses

9.3 Significant Figures and Atomic Mass

9.4 Mass Percent Composition of a Compound

9.5 The Mole: The Chemist’s Counting Unit

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 10: Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro (1776—1856)

9.6 The Mass of a Mole

9.7 Significant Figures and Avogadro’s Number

9.8 Relationship between Atomic Mass Units and Gram Units

9.9 The Mole and Chemical Formulas

9.10 The Mole and Chemical Calculations

9.11 Purity of Samples

9.12 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

9.13 Determination of Empirical Formulas

9.14 Determination of Molecular Formulas

Chapter 10 Chemical Calculations Involving Chemical Equations

10.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 11: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743—1794)

10.2 Writing Chemical Equations

10.3 Chemical Equation Coefficients

10.4 Balancing Procedures for Chemical Equations

10.5 Special Symbols Used in Chemical Equations

10.6 Classes of Chemical Reactions

10.7 Chemical Equations and the Mole Concept

10.8 Balanced Chemical Equations and the Law of Conservation of Mass

10.9 Calculations Based on Chemical Equations–Stoichiometry

10.10 The Limiting Reactant Concept

10.11 Yields: Theoretical, Actual, and Percent

10.12 Simultaneous and Sequential Chemical Reactions

Chapter 11 States of Matter

11.1 Factors That Determine Physical State

11.2 Property Differences among Physical States

11.3 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

11.4 The Solid State

11.5 The Liquid State

11.6 The Gaseous State

11.7 A Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

11.8 Endothermic and Exothermic Changes of State

11.9 Heat Energy and Specific Heat

11.10 Temperature Changes as a Substance Is Heated

11.11 Energy and Changes of State

11.12 Heat Energy Calculations

11.13 Evaporation of Liquids

11.14 Vapor Pressure of Liquids

11.15 Boiling and Boiling Points

11.16 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids

11.17 Hydrogen Bonding and the Properties of Water

Chapter 12 Gas Laws

12.1 Properties of Some Common Gases

12.2 Gas Law Variables

12.3 Boyle’s Law: A Pressure—Volume Relationship

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 12: Robert Boyle (1627—1691)

12.4 Charles’s Law: A Temperature—Volume Relationship

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 13: Jacques Alexandre César Charles (1746—1823)

12.5 Gay-Lussac’s Law: A Temperature—Pressure Relationship

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 14: Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778—1850)

12.6 The Combined Gas Law

12.7 Avogadro’s Law

12.8 An Ideal Gas

12.9 The Ideal Gas Law

12.10 Modified Forms of the Ideal Gas Law Equation

12.11 Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions

12.12 Volumes of Gases and the Limiting Reactant Concept

12.13 Molar Volume of a Gas

12.14 Chemical Calculations Using Molar Volume

12.15 Mixtures of Gases

12.16 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Chapter 13 Solutions

13.1 Characteristics of Solutions

13.2 Solubility

13.3 Solution Formation

13.4 Solubility Rules

13.5 Solution Concentrations

13.6  Percentage Concentration Unit

13.7 Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentration Unit

13.8 Molarity Concentration Units

13.9 Molality and Chemical Reactions in Solution

13.10 Dilution Calculations

13.11 Molarity  Concentration Unit

Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and Salts

14.1 Arrhenius Acid—Base Theory

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 15: Svante August Arrhenius (1859—1927)

14.2 Brønsted—Lowry Acid—Base Theory

14.3 Conjugate Acids and Bases

14.4 Mono-, Di-, and Triprotic Acids

14.5 Strengths of Acids and Bases

14.6 Salts

14.7 Reactions of Acids

14.8 Reactions of Bases

14.9 Reactions of Salts

14.10 Self-Ionization of Water

14.11 The pH Scale

14.12 Hydrolysis of Salts

14.13 Buffers

14.14 Acid—Base Titrations

Chapter 15 Chemical Equations: Net Ionic and Oxidation-Reduction

15.1 Types of Chemical Equations

15.2 Electrolytes

15.3 Ionic and Net Ionic Equations

15.4 Oxidation—Reduction Terminology

15.5 Oxidation Numbers

15.6 Redox and Nonredox Chemical Reactions

15.7 Balancing Oxidation—Reduction Equations

15.8 Oxidation Number Method for Balancing Redox Equations

15.9 Half-Reaction Method for Balancing Redox Equations

15.10 Disproportionation Reactions

15.11 Stoichiometric Calculations Involving Ions

Chapter 16 Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium

16.1 Collision Theory

16.2 Endothermic and Exothermic Chemical Reactions

16.3 Factors That Influence Chemical Reaction Rates

16.4 Chemical Equilibrium

16.5 Equilibrium Mixture Stoichiometry

16.6 Equilibrium Constants

16.7 Equilibrium Position

16.8 Temperature Dependency of Equilibrium Constants

16.9 Le Ch®telier’s Principle

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 16: Henri-Louis Le Ch®telier (1850—1936)

16.10 Forcing Chemical Reactions to Completion


Answer to Odd-Numbered Problems and All Self-Test Problems