Introduction to Semimicro Qualitative Analysis

Prentice Hall
Joseph T Lagowski / C. H. Sorum  
Total pages
September 2004
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Introduction to Semimicro Qualitative Analysis
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For courses in General Chemistry (Lecture and Laboratory) and Qualitative Inorganic Analysis.


This self-teaching lab manual presents a process for learning descriptive chemistry and the chemistry of the more common elements and their compounds in the format of a scheme of analysis. Students and challenged to call upon their manipulative and observational skills to provide the basis for identifying a substance or a mixture of substances. Part I describes the strategy of qualitative analysis so that students have a review of the principles readily available when they are engaged in the details of laboratory work; Part II presents the concepts involved in qualitative analysis, systematically dealing with the nature of the chemical compounds; Part III features well-tested analytical laboratory procedures.


• An attempt has been made to rearrange (and revise) the chapters on laboratory practices and the practical aspects of qualitative analysis.


• The chapters that appear in Part II - the theory of qualitative analysis - have all been revised.


Early introduction to the principles of “green chemistry” (using fewer chemicals and smaller volumes of solution using a benign solvent) - Gives students experience in semimicro methods of qualitative analysis.


“Less than macro” trends in laboratory instruction reflected in experimental procedures - Emphasizes small quantities of chemicals, simpler equipment, and fewer hazards.


REVISED! End-of-chapter questions - Anticipate some of the more practical problems (in Part II) and illustrate the principles developed.


A list of the required equipment in Appendix III:

- Introduces students to each piece of equipment and special technique at the time it is first used in the plan of analysis.

- The equipment is of the standard Semimicro type available at most supply houses.

- Only a few items need to be prepared, but these can be made by the student.


A list of all reagents used with directions for preparing all solutions in Appendix III.


NEW! - Fume tests have been incorporated where appropriate as a verification method.


NEW! - More emphasis has been placed on the usefulness of the role of identifying anions in the qualitative analysis of cations.


Net equations used to describe reactions which occur in solution in conformity with the principle that equations should indicate the predominate species in the system. No effort has been made to present the detailed mechanisms of the more complex reactions.


A general survey in each chapter of the chemistry of the species in a qualitative analysis group of ions followed by the experimental details for the ions in that group.

New to this Edition

NEW! - Fume tests have been incorporated where appropriate as a verification method.


NEW! - More emphasis has been placed on the usefulness of the role of identifying anions in the qualitative analysis of cations.

Table of Contents





1 The Strategy of Qualitative Analysis






2 The Nature of Chemical Reactions



Chemical Equilibrium




3 The Nature of Chemical Compounds


Physical Properties of Compounds

Classification of Chemical compounds

The Ionization of Water

Acids and Bases


4    Solution Phenomena


Concentration Units


Equilibrium Processes Involving Sparingly Soluble Ionic Substances

Colloidal dispersions


5 Complex Compounds


Lewis Theory of Chemical Combinations


Theoretical Considerations

Stability of Complex Ions

The Role of Complex Ions in Qualitative Analysis


6    Oxidation-Reduction Reactions




7   The Practical Aspects of Qualitative Analysis


The Periodic Table

Chemical Reactions

Equilibrium Considerations

Formation of Precipitates

Dissolving Precipitates

Laboratory Safety


8 Laboratory Practices


Summary of Laboratory Work

Record of Laboratory Work and Laboratory Reports

Laboratory Procedures


9 The Silver Group


The Chemistry of the Silver Group Ions

Precipitation and Analysis of the Silver Group

Separation of Lead from Silver and Mercury (I)

Separation and Detection of Silver and Mercury


10 The Copper-Arsenic Group


The Chemistry of the Copper-Arsenic Group Ions

Separation of the Copper Subgroup from the Arsenic Subgroup

Separation of Mercury from Lead, Bismuth, Copper, and Cadmium

Separation of Lead from Bismuth, Copper, and Cadmium

Separation of Bismuth from Copper and Cadmium

Detection of Copper and Cadmium

Separation of Arsenic from Antimony and Tin


11 The Aluminum-Nickel Group


The chemistry of the Aluminum-Nickel Group Ions

Precipitation and Analysis of the Aluminum-Nickel Group

Separation of the Aluminum Subgroup from the Nickel Subgroup

Detection of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Manganese


12 The Barium-Magnesium Group


The Chemistry of the Barium-Magnesium Group Ions

Detection of Ammonium Salts

The Separation and Detection of Barium

The Separation and Detection of Calcium

Detection of Sodium and Potassium


13 The Analysis of Alloys


14 Analysis of Salts and Salt Mixtures


Examination of the Solid

Solubility of the Salt

Reactions with Specific Reagents

Preliminary Experiments

Analysis of Unknown Salt

Examination of the Solid

Dissolution of the Solid

Determine What Cations Are Present

Treatment of the Unknown with Class Reagents

Specific Tests for Anions


15   Recording and Reporting Analysis




I Brief Review of Oxidation Numbers

II   Solution of Quadratic Equations

III Reagents and Equipment Used

Index of Procedures


Back Cover

Semimicro Qualitative Analysis, Eighth Edition, addresses two important current issues in chemistry education: the need for students to acquire a knowledge of descriptive chemistry and a growing interest by teaching chemists to expose students to the concepts of "green chemistry."

Although descriptive chemistry may be difficult to define precisely, most chemists would agree that a major component of this subject-descriptive chemistry-is the chemistry of the more common elements and their compounds, especially as this occurs in aqueous solutions.

"Green chemistry," briefly, is an expression of doing chemistry-laboratory work-that minimizes the use of chemicals, uses benign solvents (like water); and attends to the problems of handling "wastes" in a non-polluting way.

The first part of this classic work discusses the general strategy of qualitative analysis. It then systematically surveys the nature of chemical compounds including ionic, covalent and coordination of compounds, and the chemical reactions they undergo.

The second part provides a series of laboratory experiments to perform that have been tested over time, and reviewed to insure current treatment in terms of chemical safety and disposal. Key chemical concepts are highlighted along with important safety information. The discussion in Part I provides a firm foundation for understanding the practical work carried out in Part II.