Introduction to Semimicro Qualitative Analysis

Series
Prentice Hall
Author
Joseph T Lagowski / C. H. Sorum  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
8
Language
English
Total pages
312
Pub.-date
September 2004
ISBN13
9780130462169
ISBN
0130462160
Related Titles


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9780130462169
Introduction to Semimicro Qualitative Analysis
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Description

For courses in General Chemistry (Lecture and Laboratory) and Qualitative Inorganic Analysis.

 

This self-teaching lab manual presents a process for learning descriptive chemistry and the chemistry of the more common elements and their compounds in the format of a scheme of analysis. Students and challenged to call upon their manipulative and observational skills to provide the basis for identifying a substance or a mixture of substances. Part I describes the strategy of qualitative analysis so that students have a review of the principles readily available when they are engaged in the details of laboratory work; Part II presents the concepts involved in qualitative analysis, systematically dealing with the nature of the chemical compounds; Part III features well-tested analytical laboratory procedures.

Features

• An attempt has been made to rearrange (and revise) the chapters on laboratory practices and the practical aspects of qualitative analysis.

 

• The chapters that appear in Part II - the theory of qualitative analysis - have all been revised.

 

Early introduction to the principles of “green chemistry” (using fewer chemicals and smaller volumes of solution using a benign solvent) - Gives students experience in semimicro methods of qualitative analysis.

 

“Less than macro” trends in laboratory instruction reflected in experimental procedures - Emphasizes small quantities of chemicals, simpler equipment, and fewer hazards.

 

REVISED! End-of-chapter questions - Anticipate some of the more practical problems (in Part II) and illustrate the principles developed.

 

A list of the required equipment in Appendix III:

- Introduces students to each piece of equipment and special technique at the time it is first used in the plan of analysis.

- The equipment is of the standard Semimicro type available at most supply houses.

- Only a few items need to be prepared, but these can be made by the student.

 

A list of all reagents used with directions for preparing all solutions in Appendix III.

 

NEW! - Fume tests have been incorporated where appropriate as a verification method.

 

NEW! - More emphasis has been placed on the usefulness of the role of identifying anions in the qualitative analysis of cations.

 

Net equations used to describe reactions which occur in solution in conformity with the principle that equations should indicate the predominate species in the system. No effort has been made to present the detailed mechanisms of the more complex reactions.

 

A general survey in each chapter of the chemistry of the species in a qualitative analysis group of ions followed by the experimental details for the ions in that group.

New to this Edition

NEW! - Fume tests have been incorporated where appropriate as a verification method.

 

NEW! - More emphasis has been placed on the usefulness of the role of identifying anions in the qualitative analysis of cations.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

 

Part I GENERAL STRATEGY

 

1 The Strategy of Qualitative Analysis

 

Summary

 

Part II CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

 

2 The Nature of Chemical Reactions

 

Kinetics

Chemical Equilibrium

Thermodynamics

Summary

 

3 The Nature of Chemical Compounds

   

Physical Properties of Compounds

Classification of Chemical compounds

The Ionization of Water

Acids and Bases

 

4    Solution Phenomena

   

Concentration Units

Solubility

Equilibrium Processes Involving Sparingly Soluble Ionic Substances

Colloidal dispersions

 

5 Complex Compounds

   

Lewis Theory of Chemical Combinations

Nomenclature

Theoretical Considerations

Stability of Complex Ions

The Role of Complex Ions in Qualitative Analysis

 

6    Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

 

Part III THE PRACTICE OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

 

7   The Practical Aspects of Qualitative Analysis

   

The Periodic Table

Chemical Reactions

Equilibrium Considerations

Formation of Precipitates

Dissolving Precipitates

Laboratory Safety

 

8 Laboratory Practices

   

Summary of Laboratory Work

Record of Laboratory Work and Laboratory Reports

Laboratory Procedures

 

9 The Silver Group

   

The Chemistry of the Silver Group Ions

Precipitation and Analysis of the Silver Group

Separation of Lead from Silver and Mercury (I)

Separation and Detection of Silver and Mercury

 

10 The Copper-Arsenic Group

   

The Chemistry of the Copper-Arsenic Group Ions

Separation of the Copper Subgroup from the Arsenic Subgroup

Separation of Mercury from Lead, Bismuth, Copper, and Cadmium

Separation of Lead from Bismuth, Copper, and Cadmium

Separation of Bismuth from Copper and Cadmium

Detection of Copper and Cadmium

Separation of Arsenic from Antimony and Tin

 

11 The Aluminum-Nickel Group

   

The chemistry of the Aluminum-Nickel Group Ions

Precipitation and Analysis of the Aluminum-Nickel Group

Separation of the Aluminum Subgroup from the Nickel Subgroup

Detection of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Manganese

 

12 The Barium-Magnesium Group

   

The Chemistry of the Barium-Magnesium Group Ions

Detection of Ammonium Salts

The Separation and Detection of Barium

The Separation and Detection of Calcium

Detection of Sodium and Potassium

 

13 The Analysis of Alloys

 

14 Analysis of Salts and Salt Mixtures

   

Examination of the Solid

Solubility of the Salt

Reactions with Specific Reagents

Preliminary Experiments

Analysis of Unknown Salt

Examination of the Solid

Dissolution of the Solid

Determine What Cations Are Present

Treatment of the Unknown with Class Reagents

Specific Tests for Anions

 

15   Recording and Reporting Analysis

 

APPENDICES

 

I Brief Review of Oxidation Numbers

II   Solution of Quadratic Equations

III Reagents and Equipment Used

Index of Procedures

Index

Back Cover

Semimicro Qualitative Analysis, Eighth Edition, addresses two important current issues in chemistry education: the need for students to acquire a knowledge of descriptive chemistry and a growing interest by teaching chemists to expose students to the concepts of "green chemistry."

Although descriptive chemistry may be difficult to define precisely, most chemists would agree that a major component of this subject-descriptive chemistry-is the chemistry of the more common elements and their compounds, especially as this occurs in aqueous solutions.

"Green chemistry," briefly, is an expression of doing chemistry-laboratory work-that minimizes the use of chemicals, uses benign solvents (like water); and attends to the problems of handling "wastes" in a non-polluting way.

The first part of this classic work discusses the general strategy of qualitative analysis. It then systematically surveys the nature of chemical compounds including ionic, covalent and coordination of compounds, and the chemical reactions they undergo.

The second part provides a series of laboratory experiments to perform that have been tested over time, and reviewed to insure current treatment in terms of chemical safety and disposal. Key chemical concepts are highlighted along with important safety information. The discussion in Part I provides a firm foundation for understanding the practical work carried out in Part II.