Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume 1

Douglas E. Comer  
Total pages
November 2013
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Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume 1


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An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS. In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things.
The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.


  • Voice and Video Over IP (RTP) — Examines the RTP protocol that allows a receiver to coordinate and play real-time data such as voice and video as well as the RSVP and COPS protocols that can be used to provide resource information.
  • IP coverage — Up-to-date discussions of Internet Security and Firewalls, Design with IPSEC, the latest IPv6 features, and IP Routing.
  • Discussion of routing architectures — Elaborates on the routing architectures used for large and small Internets.
  • Examination of Internet application services — Provides students with information on services such as domain name system (DNS), electronic mail (SMTP, MIME), file transfer and access (FTP, TFTP, NFS), remote login (TELNET, rlogin), and network management (SNMP, MIB, ANS.I).
  • Mobile IP — Describes the technology that allows a computer to move from one network to another without changing its IP address.
  • Private Network Interconnection (NAT, VPN) — Teaches students about two key technologies used to interconnect private intranets and the global Internet.

New to this Edition

Many readers have requested that the text be updated to reflect recent changes; many have suggested specific topics and emphasis. Twenty years after its invention, IPv6 is finally gaining acceptance. Voice and video have replaced file transfer as major uses of the Internet. The sixth edition responds to readers’ suggestions by reorganizing and updating existing chapters and introducing new material:

  • Chapters on the early applications of Telnet and FTP have been eliminated to make space for newer material.
  • A new chapter on the Internet of Things considers the use of TCP/IP in a wireless sensor network.
  • A new chapter on Software Defined Networking examines the use of OpenFlow which, although is it not an IETF standard, has become an important part of network and Internet management.
  • The chapter on protocol layering has been moved earlier in the text. Instructors are warned, however, that layering is not a rigid architecture that explains all protocols. Students should see it as a basic but somewhat simplistic guideline that helps us understand protocols. In Chapter 30, for example, we learn that the protocols for a route-over mesh blur the boundaries between layers by adding shims and blending IP forwarding with Layer 2 reachability.
Each chapter has been updated to focus on ideas and technologies that are now being used in the Internet.
  • The most significant change consists of integrating the IPv6 discussion with that of IPv4. Each chapter describes a principle, explains the general design, and then proceeds to explain how the principle applies to IPv4 and IPv6. Readers will see that the two versions of IP are closely interrelated and that it is impossible to understand the changes introduced by IPv6 without understanding IPv4.

Table of Contents


Foreword xxiii

Preface xxv

Chapter 1 Introduction And Overview 1

1.1 The Motivation For Internetworking 1

1.2 The TCP/IP Internet 2

1.3 Internet Services 2

1.4 History And Scope Of The Internet 6

1.5 The Internet Architecture Board 7

1.6 The IAB Reorganization 8

1.7 Internet Request For Comments (RFCs) 8

1.8 Internet Growth 9

1.9 Transition To IPv6 12

1.10 Committee Design And The New Version of IP 12

1.11 Relationship Between IPv4 And IPv6 13

1.12 IPv6 Migration 14

1.13 Dual Stack Systems 15

1.14 Organization Of The Text 15

1.15 Summary 16

Chapter 2 Overview Of Underlying Network Technologies 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Two Approaches To Network Communication 20

2.3 WAN And LAN 21

2.4 Hardware Addressing Schemes 21

2.5 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 22

2.6 Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) 26

2.7 ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) 26

2.8 Optical Carrier And Packet Over SONET (OC, POS) 27

2.9 Point-To-Point Networks 28

2.10 VLAN Technology And Broadcast Domains 28

2.11 Bridging 29

2.12 Congestion And Packet Loss 30

2.13 Summary 31

Chapter 3 Internetworking Concept And Architectural Model 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Application-Level Interconnection 35

3.3 Network-Level Interconnection 37

3.4 Properties Of The Internet 38

3.5 Internet Architecture 39

3.6 Interconnection Of Multiple Networks With IP Routers 39

3.7 The User’s View 41

3.8 All Networks Are Equal 42

3.9 The Unanswered Questions 43

3.10 Summary 43

Chapter 4 Protocol Layering 47

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 The Need For Multiple Protocols 47

4.3 The Conceptual Layers Of Protocol Software 49

4.4 Functionality Of The Layers 49

4.5 ISO 7-Layer Reference Model 50

4.6 X.25 And Its Relation To The ISO Model 51

4.7 The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model 52

4.8 Locus Of Intelligence 56

4.9 The Protocol Layering Principle 57

4.10 The Layering Principle Applied To A Network 58

4.11 Layering In Mesh Networks 60

4.12 Two Important Boundaries In The TCP/IP Model 62

4.13 Cross-Layer Optimizations 63

4.14 The Basic Idea Behind Multiplexing And Demultiplexing 64

4.15 Summary 66

Chapter 5 Internet Addressing 69

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 Universal Host Identifiers 69

5.3 The Original IPv4 Classful Addressing Scheme 71

5.4 Dotted Decimal Notation Used With IPv4 72

5.5 IPv4 Subnet Addressing 72

5.6 Fixed Length IPv4 Subnets 75

5.7 Variable-Length IPv4 Subnets 77

5.8 Implementation Of IPv4 Subnets With Masks 77

5.9 IPv4 Subnet Mask Representation And Slash Notation 78

5.10 The Current Classless IPv4 Addressing Scheme 79

5.11 IPv4 Address Blocks And CIDR Slash Notation 82

5.12 A Classless IPv4 Addressing Example 82

5.13 IPv4 CIDR Blocks Reserved For Private Networks 83

5.14 The IPv6 Addressing Scheme 84

5.15 IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation 84

5.16 IPv6 Address Space Assignment 85

5.17 Embedding IPv4 Addresses In IPv6 For Transition 86

5.18 IPv6 Unicast Addresses And /64 87

5.19 IPv6 Interface Identifiers And MAC Addresses 88

5.20 IP Addresses, Hosts, And Network Connections 89

5.21 Special Addresses