Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership and Management

Allyn & Bacon
Taher A. Razik / Austin D. Swanson
Februar 2009


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Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership and Management
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    In a time of high educational expectations and professional accountability, today's educational leaders need to possess a broad variety of skills that enable them to function comfortably and effectively in changing environments and under highly politicized conditions. Under these circumstances, change is the only constant. The mission of this book is to foster understanding of this reality among those preparing for administrative and managerial careers in pre-collegiate educational institutions and to help them develop skills necessary for working competently within those institutions.

    This text is eclectic in approach, not ideological, and emphasizes an action-research perspective that compels readers to consider critically the theoretical underpinnings of current educational practice and motivates them to seek practical alternative approaches to solving both common and unique problems.

    This book addresses general principles underlying the knowledge base of leadership and management as specifically applied to educational institutions. It stirs learners' thoughts through the review of scholarship in a wide range of areas, encouraging them to critically consider the theoretical underpinnings of administrative practice.


  • Keying to ISLLC Standards - A table printed on the front piece shows the location where the knowledge indicators for each standard are discussed chapter by chapter.
  • Summary of Fundamental Concepts - discussed at the end of each chapter (except Ch. 14).
  • Activities and Case Studies - are embedded in the text of each chapter with related discussions.  These provide reinforcement to the student before continuing to the next section of the text.
  • Internet Resources - helps students gain additional and updated information on the topic.  The design and content of the websites also provide students with insights into the philosophy and style of the sponsor.

New to this Edition

New!  Keying to ISLLC Standards: Since most students taking an introductory course in school administration are intending a career path in the public sector and will be in need of state licensing, the linking of the concepts presented in the book with likely licensing requirements is important to both students and instructors.


New! Summary listing of Fundamental Conceptsdiscussed chapter by chapter. Instructors desiring to build a segment or unit around a particular ISLLC Standard or Knowledge Indicator can easily identify relevant supporting sections of the text using the frontpiece table. The listings provide Students with a summary of the key concepts discussed in each chapter.


New! Activities and Case Studies as instructional aids have been embedded in boxes in the text of each chapter with related discussions instead of at the end as in previous editions. Many of the activities are of a nature that the student can complete them as reinforcement before continuing to the next section of the text. The relevant ISLLC Knowledge, Dispositions, and Performances indicators are reported for each activity.


New! Numerous Internet Resources are brought to readers' attention. This usually takes place through the activities, but occasionally in the text, itself.Through consulting the source directly, the student can gain additional-and updated-information on the topic. The design and content of the website also provides students with insights into the philosophy and style of the sponsor.

Table of Contents

Part I  The Context of Educational Leadership

Chapter 1 The Imperative for Educational Reform 

          Adapting to a Global Society  

Causes for Concern  

International Comparisons of Academic Achievement 

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Trends

Links between Education and Economic Considerations 

Family and Peer Influences on School Success  

The Education Reform Movement  

Waves of Educational Reform 

Emerging Patterns of Reform

The Scope and Structure of School Governance 

The Historical Development of Public Education  

The Current Organization of School Governance  

Summary and Fundamental Concepts  



Chapter 2 The Power of Systems Thinking for Educational Change



Conceptualizing Systems  

The Development of Systems Thinking  

Systems Definitions  

Systems Frameworks  

Systems Properties Explored  

Other Properties of Systems

Complex Systems  

Organizational Implications of Systems Thinking  

Groundbreaking: Early Organizational Theories

Changes in Management Roles and Contexts 

Organizational Change

Contingency Theory

Misconceptions About Systems Thinking 

Systemic Interventions  

Feedback Requirements

Looking Toward the Future    

Unrest in Organizations

Regulating Variety in Organizations

Metaphor and System Modeling in Educational Administration 

Liberating Systems Theory: The Critical Stance 

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Study  


Chapter 3 Schools as Organizational Systems    


Ways of Thinking about Organizations  

Systems Thinking and Learning Organizations

  Systems Thinking in Education

  Learning Organizations

Internal Processes of Organizations

  Decision Making




Other Characteristics of Organizations



  Size, Structure, and Complexity

  Organizational Health and Effectiveness

Images of Organizations  

The Machine Metaphor  

The Organism Metaphor

The Brain Metaphor

Metaphors of New Science

Self-Organizing Organizations  

Reflections on Organizational Theory and Practice

  Conflicts Between Theory and Practice

  Psychic Prisons

A Fruitful Field for Further Study

Summary and Fundamental Concepts  

Case Study 


Part II:  Functions of Leadership in Learning Organizations

Chapter 4 Leadership for Learning Organizations

          Leadership or Management 

Conceptualizing Leadership


Leadership Trait Theories  

Behavioral Theory  

Power Influence  

Leadership Styles

Contingency Theories and Models

Situational Determinants Theories and Models  

Transformational and Transactional Leadership 

Multiple Approaches to Leadership

Leadership within a Cultural Context 

Women in Authority  

Leadership for Sustainable Change

A New Paradigm for Leadership  

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Study  


Chapter 5 Human Relations: The Base for Educational Leadership


The Development of Human Relations Concepts

  The Stage of Classical Thinking (Pre-1930's)

  The Stage of Systematic Development (1930-1950)

  The Stage of Teaching and Practice (1950-1960)

  The Stage of Refinement (1960-1970)

  The Stage of Decline (1970-1980)

  The Stage of Evolving (1980- Present)

Conceptualizing Human Relations Theories  

Definitions of Human Relations  

Optimistic Assumptions of Human Nature  

Clinical and Ethical Dimensions  

The Importance of Human Needs 

Human Motivation and Human Behavior  

The Role of Motivation in Performance  

Morale and Productivity  

The Significance of Informal Organizations  

The Application of Human Relations Concepts 

Theoretical Perspectives of Human Relations  

Human Nature  

Theory X and Theory Y

Pygmalion Leadership

          Human Motivation

Process Models 

  Expectancy Models

  Behaviorist Models

  Social Learning Models

Content Models  

  Common Human Needs

  Leadership Considerations

  Motivation at Work

Morale in Organizations  

Major Morale Factors  

Morale, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity  

Approaches to Studying Morale  

The Quality of Work Life  

Informal Organizations  

Informal Leaders 

The Effects of Informal Organizations  

The Inevitability of Informal Organizations  

Human Relations Theory in Educational Administration  

Democratic Educational Administration  

The Human Relations Movement in Education 

From Democratic Administration to Human Relations Management  

The Effects of the Human Relations Movement on Educational Administration  

A New Frame of Leadership  

A New Paradigm for Educational Leadership  

A Motivational Model for Educational Leadership  

Contemporary Issues in Human Relations  

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Study  


Chapter 6 Communication: The Breath of Organizational Life    


Systemic Metaphors of Communication  

Theory Building and Judgment  

Diversity in Communication Theories: A Twenty-First Century Paradox  

Theory Genres in Communication  

Metaphors and Assumptions in Organizational Communication  

Distinguishing Features of Organizational Communication  

Factors Affecting Clarity, Credibility, and Directionality of Organizational Messages  

Types of Message Directionality  

Other Factors Affecting Organizational Communication  

A Sampling of Approaches to Organizational Communication  

Structural and Functional Approaches  

Behavioral Approaches  

Approaches Related to the Process of Organizing  

Socio-psychological Perspective on Individual Communication in Organizations  

Pathways to the Future  

Synthesizing Known Principles of Organizational Communication  

Combining the Metaphors  

Moving Forward: Potential New Directions

Creating Effective Communication in an Organization  

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Study  


Part III. Values, Analysis, and Information

Chapter 7 The Impact of Personal Values on Decision Outcomes




Philosophical Guides to Leadership  



Realism, Logical Positivism, and Postpositivism  


Critical Theory 

Interpretivistic Theory/Constructivism  


Implications for Inquiry and Practice

Value and Value Systems  

Values Defined  

Values and Archetypes of Leadership  

Values as Part of Organizational Cultures 

Organizational Leadership: Values and Vision  

Values, Democracy, and Followership  


Values Analysis

  Reflection in Practice

  Identifying Theories-in-Practice of Organizations

  Value Analysis of Problems  

Inquiry into Educational Issues 

  Paradigms of Inquiry 

  Inquiry and Educational Administration 

  Quandaries of Inquiry 

     Simple to Complex

     Heirarchical to Heterarchical

     Determenacy to Indetermenacy

     Linear Causality to Mutual Causality

     Assembly to Morphogenesis

     Objective to Perceptual

Inquiry Processes and the Paradigm Debates 

Summary and Fundamental Concepts 

Case Study  


Chapter 8 Evaluation 



Educational Evaluation: A Brief History 

The Early Beginnings of Evaluation

The Modern Development Stages of Evaluation 

The Basic Aspects of Educational Evaluation  

Commonality Within Diversity  

Evaluation Modes and Purposes 

Evaluation Targets and Processes 

Evaluation Perspectives and Models  

Applications of Educational Evaluation


     Perspectives on Teaching and Teacher Evaluation

     Purposes of Teacher Evaluation

     Teacher Evaluation Methods

     Teacher Evaluation Models

  Evaluation: Administrators

     Purposes of Administrative Evaluation

     Principles of Administrative Evaluation

     Administrative Evaluation Models

  Program Evaluation  

     Perspectives on Program Evaluation

     Program Evaluation Approaches and Models

     Examples of Program Evaluation Models

Standards and Requirements for Educational Evaluation 

Requirements for Conducting Evaluations  

Evaluation and Accountability 

The Future

Summary and Fundamental Concepts 

Case Study  


Chapter 9 The Role of Information Technology

Types of Information Systems and Their Uses

Informal Information Systems

Formal Information Systems  

Types of Information Systems 

  Integrated Information Systems

Using Information Systems  

The Role of Information Technology in Instruction and Learning  

Technological Change and Education  

Emerging Information Age Schools

   Personalization/Individualization of Instruction

   New Roles for Teachers and Other Staff

          Prototype and Implemented Integrated Information Systems to Manage Individualized Instruction

              The Information Age System

              The Breakthrough System

              Making Schools Smarter System

              Student@Centre Internet and CASE21

Summary and Fundamental Concepts 


Part IV:  Decision Making


Chapter 10    Educational Policy Formulation in a Mixed Economy    

Education: A Public and Private Good  

The Influence of the Marketplace on Public Policy  

The Free Market  

Government and the Market  

          Issues Involved in Governmental Intervention

              When Should the Government Intervene?

                   External Economics

                   Extraordinary Risks

                   Natural Monopolies

                   Other Reasons for Intervention

              Alternative Methods of Governmental Intervention

Allocation of Authority among Levels of Government and Individuals

Models of Political Decision Making 


Systems Theory  


Group Theory  

Elite Theory  


Distinctions between Judicial and Legislative Influence on Educational Policy Formulation  

         Impact of Collective Bargaining on Policy Formulation

Examining Educational Reform Efforts within Political        Frameworks 

              Reform at the District Level





              State Level Reforms


Summary and Fundamental Concepts


Chapter 11  District and School-Based Decision Making: Strategy Formation and Planning


Decision-Making Models 

  Normative Models 

     The Economic Model

     The Expected Utility Model

  Descriptive Models

     The Administrative Model

Idiographic Factors that Influence Decision Making

Decision-making Heuristics and Biases


  Anchoring and Adjustment

  Confirmation Bias

  Hindsight Bias  

Group and Participative Decision Making

Common Errors in Administrative Decision Making

The Implications of Systems Theory and Decision Making 

Strategy Formation and Planning at the District and School Levels 

Strategy Formation  


  Mission Statements

  Belief Statements

  Strategic Policies


  Intermediate Planning

  Internal and External Analyses

  Gap Analyses

  Strategic Objectives

  Integrated Action Plans

Tactical Planning Including Budgeting

  Tactical Planning


School-Based Decision Making

Arguments for Administrative Decentralization

   School-Level Strategy Formation and Planning

   School Based Budgeting  

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Study 


Chapter 12  The Allocation of Resources to and within Educational Organizations: Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency 

Equity in the Allocation of Resources to Schooling  

The Extent of Inequities in Resource Allocation  

Intra-district Equity Studies  

Summary of Horizontal Equity Considerations

Defining and Measuring Adequacy  

Econometric Approaches

Empirical Approaches

Using Whole School Reform Models and Professional Expertise

Promoting High Student Achievement Efficiently

  External Efficiency

  Rate of Return Approach

  Internal Efficiency


  Education Production Functions

  Production Functions Explained

  Illustrative Production Functions Studies

Technical Efficiency

  Effective Schools Research

  Evaluation Studies

  School Reform Networks

          Economies and Diseconomies of Scale

Aligning Economic and Technical Efficiency

  Current Practice

  Rethinking the Allocation of Teacher Resources

Summary and Fundamental Concepts


Part V:   Implementation of Systemic Change

Chapter 13    Systemic Change    


Basic Issues  

What Is Change? 

Types of Change 

Resistance to Change 

Theoretical Implications of Change  

Strategies for Change  

Models for Planned Change and Their Use  

Problem-Solving Models  

Research-Development-Diffusion-Utilization Models  

Social Interaction Models  

Linkage Models  

Organizational Variables within Models  

Leadership and Change  

What Is a Change Agent or Change System?  

Characteristics of Effective Change Agents  

Functions of Effective Change Agents  

Managing Planned Change  

Decision Making  

Effecting Educational Change  

Models for Educational Change  

Phases of Educational Change  

Effective Change Agents in Schools  

Planning for a Changing Future in Education  

The Fate of Educational Changes  

Problematic Features of Change

Challenge and Opportunity

Summary and Fundamental Concepts

Case Studies  


Chapter 14    Educational Leadership in a Flat World

The Challenge

Responses to the Challenge

  Structural Reform

     Standards-Based Accountability

     Parental Choice of Schooling

     School-Based Decision Making

  School Reforms

     Whole-School Reform

     Small Schools

     Extended School Day and Year

  Curricular Reforms

     Subject Matter

     Individualized Instruction

     Professional Development

Critique of the Reform Efforts

Systems Theory as a Guide for Education Leaders

Implications for Persons in Leadership Positions in Education

  Coordinating a System of Schools

  Transformational Leadership

  Moral Leadership


  School Culture and Participatory Democracy

Parting Thoughts


Name Index  

Subject Index



Back Cover

Leading students to a clear and comprehensive understanding of the field's basic issues, Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership and Management, Third Edition takes a realistic and practical approach to leadership training. Eclectic in approach, this text emphasizes an action-research perspective, compelling readers to think critically about the theoretical underpinnings of current educational practice and motivating them to solve problems using sensible, realistic alternative approaches.


In a time of high educational expectations and professional accountability, today's educational leaders must be able to function comfortably and effectively in changing environments and politicized conditions. Linking theory with practice, Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership and Management, Third Edition gives those preparing for administrative and managerial careers in the K-12 community the skills to decide upon relevant action under novel conditions; the ability to understand the issues and processes found in educational institutions; and the knowledge to include originality and collaboration in designing strategic policies.


New to the third edition:

  • New!  A key to ISLLC Standards assists students in preparing for state licensing by linking the concepts presented in the book with licensing requirements.
  • New! A summary of Fundamental Concepts discussed chapter by chapter provides students with a helpful list of key themes and ideas. Table P.1 in the front of the text allows instructors to build units around a particular ISLLC Standard or Knowledge Indicator by identifying relevant supporting sections.
  • New! Embedded activities and case studies appear in boxes throughout the text allowing students to think critically about the subjects at hand and reinforce comprehension of new information.
  • New! Internet resources are brought to the attention of readers, giving students the chance to gain additional and updated information on the topics under discussion.