Electromagnetics

Series
Prentice Hall
Author
Branislav M. Notaros  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
1
Language
English
Total pages
848
Pub.-date
May 2010
ISBN13
9780132433846
ISBN
0132433842
Related Titles



Description

Electromagnetics is a thorough text that enables readers to readily grasp EM fundamentals, develop true problem-solving skills, and really understand and like the material. It is meant as an "ultimate resource" for undergraduate electromagnetics.

Features

  • 371 outstanding worked examples, with very detailed and instructive solutions, tightly coupled to the theory
  • 650 outstanding homework problems, fully supported by solved examples (a demo example for every problem)
  • New pedagogy and clear, rigorous, complete, and logical presentation of material with no missing steps
  • Great flexibility for different options in coverage, including the transmission-lines-first approach
  • 500 unique multiple-choice conceptual questions, for active teaching/learning and assessment, available on-line
  • 400 MATLAB computer exercises and projects, many with tutorials and m files, available on-line

www.pearsonhighered.com/notaros

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Electrostatic Field in Free Space 1
1.1 Coulomb's Law 2
1.2 Definition of the Electric Field Intensity Vector 7
1.3 Continuous Charge Distributions 8
1.4 On the Volume and Surface Integration 9
1.5 Electric Field Intensity Vector due to Given Charge Distributions 10
1.6 Definition of the Electric Scalar Potential 16
1.7 Electric Potential due to Given Charge Distributions 18
1.8 Voltage 21
1.9 Differential Relationship between the Field and Potential in Electrostatics 22
1.10 Gradient 23
1.11 3-D and 2-D Electric Dipoles 26
1.12 Formulation and Proof of Gauss' Law 28
1.13 Applications of Gauss' Law 31
1.14 Differential Form of Gauss' Law 35
1.15 Divergence 36
1.16 Conductors in the Electrostatic Field 39
1.17 Evaluation of the Electric Field and Potential due to Charged Conductors 43
1.18 Electrostatic Shielding 46
1.19 Charge Distribution on Metallic Bodies of Arbitrary Shapes 48
1.20 Method of Moments for Numerical Analysis of Charged Metallic Bodies 49
1.21 Image Theory 51

Chapter 2 Dielectrics, Capacitance, and Electric Energy 61
2.1 Polarization of Dielectrics 62
2.2 Polarization Vector 63
2.3 Bound Volume and Surface Charge Densities 64
2.4 Evaluation of the Electric Field and Potential due to Polarized Dielectrics 68
2.5 Generalized Gauss' Law 70
2.6 Characterization of Dielectric Materials 71
2.7 Maxwell's Equations for the Electrostatic Field 75
2.8 Electrostatic Field in Linear, Isotropic, and Homogeneous Media 75
2.9 Dielectric-Dielectric Boundary Conditions 79
2.10 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 82
2.11 Finite-Difference Method for Numerical Solution of Laplace's Equation 84
2.12 Definition of the Capacitance of a Capacitor 86
2.13 Analysis of Capacitors with Homogeneous Dielectrics 88
2.14 Analysis of Capacitors with Inhomogeneous Dielectrics 95
2.15 Energy of an Electrostatic System 102
2.16 Electric Energy Density 104
2.17 Dielectric Breakdown in Electrostatic Systems 108

Chapter 3 Steady Electric Currents 124
3.1 Current Density Vector and Current Intensity 125
3.2 Conductivity and Ohm's Law in Local Form 128
3.3 Losses in Conductors and Joule's Law in Local Form 132
3.4 Continuity Equation 133
3.5 Boundary Conditions for Steady Currents 137
3.6 Distribution of Charge in a Steady Current Field 138
3.7 Relaxation Time 139
3.8 Resistance, Ohm's Law, and Joule's Law 140
3.9 Duality between Conductance and Capacitance 146
3.10 External Electric Energy Volume Sources and Generators 149
3.11 Analysis of Capacitors with Imperfect Inhomogeneous Dielectrics 152
3.12 Analysis of Lossy Transmission Lines with Steady Currents 156
3.13 Grounding Electrodes 162

Chapter 4 Magnetostatic Field in Free Space 173
4.1 Magnetic Force and Magnetic Flux Density Vector 174
4.2 Biot-Savart Law 177
4.3 Magnetic Flux Density Vector due to Given Current Distributions 179
4.4 Formulation of Ampère's Law 185
4.5 Applications of Ampère's Law 187
4.6 Differential Form of Ampère's Law 193
4.7 Curl 195
4.8 Law of Conservation of Magnetic Flux 198
4.9 Magnetic Vector Potential 201
4.10 Proof of Ampère's Law 204
4.11 Magnetic Dipole 206
4.12 The Lorentz Force and Hall Effect 209
4.13 Evaluation of Magnetic Forces 211

Chapter 5 Magnetostatic Field in Material Media 221
5.1 Magnetization Vector 222
5.2 Behavior and Classification of Magnetic Materials 223
5.3 Magnetization Volume and Surface Current Densities 227
5.4 Generalized Ampère's Law 234
5.5 Permeability of Magnetic Materials 236
5.6 Maxwell's Equations and Boundary Conditions for the Magnetostatic Field 239
5.7 Image Theory for the Magnetic Field 241
5.8 Magnetization Curves and Hysteresis 243
5.9 Magnetic Circuits - Basic Assumptions for the Analysis 247
5.10 Kirchhoff'sLaws for Magnetic Circuits 250
5.11 Maxwell's Equations for the Time-Invariant Electromagnetic Field 258

Chapter 6 Slowly Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 263
6.1 Induced Electric Field Intensity Vector 264
6.2 Slowly Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields 269
6.3 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction 271
6.4 Maxwell's Equations for the Slowly Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 276
6.5 Computation of Transformer Induction 277
6.6 Electromagnetic Induction due to Motion 283
6.7 Total Electromagnetic Induction 289
6.8 Eddy Currents 294

Chapter 7 Inductance and Magnetic Energy 311
7.1 Self-Inductance 312
7.2 Mutual Inductance 318
7.3 Analysis of Magnetically Coupled Circuits 324
7.4 Magnetic Energy of Current-Carrying Conductors 331
7.5 Magnetic Energy Density 334
7.6 Internal and External Inductance in Terms of Magnetic Energy 342

Chapter 8 Rapidly Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 351
8.1 Displacement Current 352
8.2 Maxwell's Equations for the Rapidly Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 357
8.3 Electromagnetic Waves 361
8.4 Boundary Conditions for the Rapidly Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 363
8.5 Different Forms of the Continuity Equation for Rapidly Time-Varying Currents 364
8.6 Time-Harmonic Electromagnetics 366
8.7 Complex Representatives of Time-Harmonic Field and Circuit Quantities 369
8.8 Maxwell's Equations in Complex Domain 373
8.9 Lorenz Electromagnetic Potentials 376
8.10 Computation of High-Frequency Potentials and Fields in Complex Domain 381
8.11 Poynting's Theorem 389
8.12 Complex Poynting Vector 397

Chapter 9 Uniform Plane Electromagnetic Waves 408
9.1 Wave Equations 409
9.2 Uniform-Plane-Wave Approximation 411
9.3 Time-Domain Analysis of Uniform Plane Waves 412
9.4 Time-Harmonic Uniform Plane Waves and Complex-Domain Analysis 416
9.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 425
9.6 Arbitrarily Directed Uniform TEM Waves 427
9.7 Theory of Time-Harmonic Waves in Lossy Media 429
9.8 Explicit Expressions for Basic Propagation Parameters 433
9.9 Wave Propagation in Good Dielectrics 436
9.10 Wave Propagation in Good Conductors 439
9.11 Skin Effect 441
9.12 Wave Propagation in Plasmas 447
9.13 Dispersion and Group Velocity 452
9.14 Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves 458

Chapter 10 Reflection and Transmission of Plane Waves 471
10.1 Normal Incidence on a Perfectly Conducting Plane 472
10.2 Normal Incidence on a Penetrable Planar Interface 483
10.3 Surface Resistance of Good Conductors 492
10.4 Perturbation Method for Evaluation of Small Losses 497
10.5 Oblique Incidence on a Perfect Conductor 499
10.6 Concept of a Rectangular Waveguide 505
10.7 Oblique Incidence on a Dielectric Boundary 507
10.8 Total Internal Reflection and Brewster Angle 513
10.9 Wave Propagation in Multilayer Media 520

Chapter 11 Field Analysis of Transmission Lines 533
11.1 TEM Waves in Lossless Transmission Lines with Homogeneous Dielectrics 534
11.2 Electrostatic and Magnetostatic Field Distributions in Transversal Planes 538
11.3 Currents and Charges of Line Conductors 539
11.4 Analysis of Two-Conductor Transmission Lines 540
11.5 Transmission Lines with Small Losses 547
11.6 Attenuation Coefficients for Line Conductors and Dielectric 550
11.7 High-Frequency Internal Inductance of Transmission Lines 556
11.8 Evaluation of Primary and Secondary Circuit Parameters of Transmission Lines 557
11.9 Transmission Lines with Inhomogeneous Dielectrics 563
11.10 Multilayer Printed Circuit Board 567

Chapter 12 Circuit Analysis of Transmission Lines 576
12.1 Telegrapher's Equations and Their Solution in Complex Domain 577
12.2 Circuit Analysis of Lossless Transmission Lines 581
12.3 Circuit Analysis of Low-Loss Transmission Lines 581
12.4 Reflection Coefficient for Transmission Lines 583
12.5 Power Computations of Transmission Lines 589
12.6 Transmission-Line Impedance 592
12.7 Complete Solution for Line Voltage and Current 597
12.8 Short-Circuited, Open-Circuited, and Matched Transmission Lines 601
12.9 Transmission-Line Resonators 608
12.10 Quality Factor of Resonators with Small Losses 610
12.11 The Smith Chart - Construction and Basic Properties 614
12.12 Circuit Analysis of Transmission Lines Using the Smith Chart 618
12.13 Transient Analysis of Transmission Lines 628
12.14 Thévenin Equivalent Generator Pair and Reflection Coefficients for Line Transients 630
12.15 Step Response of Transmission Lines with Purely Resistive Terminations 634
12.16 Analysis of Transmission Lines with Pulse Excitations 640
12.17 Bounce Diagrams 646
12.18 Transient Response for Reactive or Nonlinear Terminations 649

Chapter 13 Waveguides and Cavity Resonators 662
13.1 Analysis of Rectangular Waveguides Based on Multiple Reflections of Plane Waves 663
13.2 Propagating and Evanescent Waves 666
13.3 Dominant Waveguide Mode 668
13.4 General TE Modal Analysis of Rectangular Waveguides 671
13.5 TM Modes in a Rectangular Waveguide 676
13.6 Cutoff Frequencies of Arbitrary Waveguide Modes 677
13.7 Wave Impedances of TE and TM Waves 680
13.8 Power Flow along a Waveguide 681
13.9 Waveguides with Small Losses 684
13.10 Waveguide Dispersion and Wave Velocities 688
13.11 Waveguide Couplers 692
13.12 Rectangular Cavity Resonators 696
13.13 Electromagnetic Energy Stored in a Cavity Resonator 700
13.14 Quality Factor of Rectangular Cavities with Small Losses 703

Chapter 14 Antennas and Wireless Communication Systems 713
14.1 Electromagnetic Potentials and Field Vectors of a Hertzian Dipole 715
14.2 Far Field and Near Field 720
14.3 Steps in Far-Field Evaluation of an Arbitrary Antenna 722
14.4 Radiated Power, Radiation Resistance, Antenna Losses, and Input Impedance 730
14.5 Antenna Characteristic Radiation Function and Radiation Patterns 736
14.6 Antenna Directivity and Gain 740
14.7 Antenna Polarization 745
14.8 Wire Dipole Antennas 745
14.9 Image Theory for Antennas above a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane 751
14.10 Monopole Antennas 754
14.11 Magnetic Dipole (Small Loop) Antenna 758
14.12 Theory of Receiving Antennas 760
14.13 Antenna Effective Aperture 766
14.14 Friis Transmission Formula for a Wireless Link 768
14.15 Antenna Arrays 772

APPENDICES
1 Quantities, Symbols, Units, and Constants 791
2 Mathematical Facts and Identities 796
3 Vector Algebra and Calculus Index 801
4 Answers to Selected Problems 802
Bibliography 806
Index 809

Back Cover

Electromagnetics is a thorough text that enables readers to readily grasp EM fundamentals, develop true problem-solving skills, and really understand and like the material. It is meant as an "ultimate resource" for undergraduate electromagnetics.

FEATURES:

  • 371 outstanding worked examples, with very detailed and instructive solutions, tightly coupled to the theory
  • 650 outstanding homework problems, fully supported by solved examples (a demo example for every problem)
  • New pedagogy and clear, rigorous, complete, and logical presentation of material with no missing steps
  • Great flexibility for different options in coverage, including the transmission-lines-first approach
  • 500 unique multiple-choice conceptual questions, for active teaching/learning and assessment, available on-line
  • 400 MATLAB computer exercises and projects, many with tutorials and m files, available on-line

www.pearsonhighered.com/notaros

Branislav M. Notaroš is Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Colorado State University, where he conducts research in computational electromagnetics, antennas, and microwaves. He received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, where he then served as Assistant Professor. He also was Assistant and Associate Professor at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. He has published three workbooks and 80 papers. Prof. Notaroš was the recipient of the 2005 IEEE MTT-S Microwave Prize, 1999 IEE Marconi Premium, 1999 URSI Young Scientist Award, 2005 UMass Dartmouth Scholar of the Year Award, 2004 UMD COE Dean's Recognition Award, and 2009 CSU Excellence in Teaching Award.

Author

Branislav M. Notaroš received the Dipl.Ing. (B.Sc.), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1988, 1992, and 1995, respectively. From 1996 to 1998, he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Belgrade, and before that, from 1989 to 1996, a Teaching and Research Assistant (faculty position) in the same department.  He spent the 1998-1999 academic year as a Research Associate at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He was an Assistant Professor, from 1999 to 2004, and Associate Professor (with Tenure), from 2004 to 2006, in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. He is currently an Associate Professor (with Tenure) of electrical and computer engineering at Colorado State University.

 

Research activities of Prof. Notaroš are in applied computational electromagnetics, antennas, and microwaves. His research publications so far include 22 journal papers, 58 conference papers and abstracts, and a chapter in a monograph. His main contributions are in higher order computational electromagnetic techniques based on the method of moments, finite element method, physical optics, domain decomposition method, and hybrid methods as applied to modeling and design of antennas and microwave circuits and devices for wireless technology. He has produced several Ph.D. and M.S. graduates. Prof. Notaroš' teaching activities are in theoretical, computational, and applied electromagnetics. He is the author of the Electromagnetics Concept Inventory (EMCI), an assessment tool for electromagnetic fields and waves. He has published 3 workbooks in electromagnetics and in fundamentals of electrical engineering (basic circuits and fields). He has taught a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses in electromagnetic theory, antennas and propagation, computational electromagnetics, fundamentals of electrical engineering, electromagnetic compatibility, and signal integrity. He has been consistently extremely highly rated by his students in all courses, and most notably in undergraduate electromagnetics courses (even though undergraduates generally find these mandatory courses quite difficult and challenging).

 

Dr. Notaroš was the recipient of the 2005 IEEE MTT-S Microwave Prize, Microwave Theory and Techniques Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (best-paper award for IEEE Transactions on MTT), 1999 IEE Marconi Premium, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, UK (best-paper award for IEE Proceedings on Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation), 1999 URSI Young Scientist Award, International Union of Radio Science, Toronto, Canada, 2005 UMD Scholar of the Year Award, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2004 Dean's Recognition Award, College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2009 and 2010 ECE Excellence in Teaching Awards (by nominations and votes of ECE students), Colorado State University, and 2010 George T. Abell Outstanding Teaching and Service Faculty Award, College of Engineering, Colorado State University.

Reader Review(s)

"The worked examples are very good and seem to be the anchor for different “concept nuggets.” The examples either demonstrate the use of the mathematics in a very complete manner or model a real-world problem using the principles developed in the previous material. By rereading the material and carefully going over the example, the student will not be intimidated by the one or two questions and problems at the end of the chapter referenced at the end of the section." - Kenneth A. James, California State University, Long Branch

"The number and variety of examples are outstanding features of the chapter. Students who learn by following examples will really benefit from this book." - Cindy K. Harnett, University of Louisville

"The text is very well written and is thorough and very precise in technical presentation. The author's presentations are clear and sound." - R.J. Coleman, University of North Carolina - Charlotte

"The examples explain the concept well and there also sufficient examples presented in each chapter. The examples provide good support for the theory and vice versa." - Yifei Li, University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

“The greatest challenge is to connect the mathematical complexity of the subject with the physical phenomena described by Maxwell's equations and also to convince the students (especially computer engineering majors) that learning electromagnetic basics is essential for the engineering background. The author's rigorous presentation and numerous practical examples are addressing this challenge quite well." - Costas D. Sarris, University of Toronto

“Based on the sample chapters I have read, I can say that this is a superb text. The coverage is complete, in-depth, the examples are innovative, derivations rigorous, and there are no errors (I have not caught even a single misprint!).” - Krzysztof A. Michalski, Texas A&M University