For courses in Advanced Grammar.
The essentials of English grammar, with a distinctively clear organization and user-friendly language
Understanding English Grammar presents the most useful elements of both traditional and new linguistic grammar, bearing in mind that today’s learners use communication tools predominantly for social purposes. Accessible to the novice reader, the text begins with an overview of English as a world language, language change, and key issues tied to prescriptive grammar and correctness. Incremental exercises provide opportunities for guided or independent practice throughout with answers at the end of the book and an updated list of further readings.
The 10th Edition introduces coauthors Gray and Salvatore, who add their expertise in linguistics, creative writing, and teaching grammar and writing.
- Organization is from whole to part.
- The introduction in Chapter 1 connects the students to their language with an upbeat voice, exploring a variety of language issues, including language change, usage, and other issues relevant to their lives and the classroom.
- NEW! Chapter 2 introduces new terminology for two major word categories: the open classes (formerly called form classes) and closed classes (formerly called structure classes), terms now used extensively in linguistic studies.
- After a useful overview of basic words and phrases in the new Chapter 2, the ten sentence patterns introduced in Chapter 3 describe the various sentence slots according to both their form and their function. This foundation serves as the basis for all of the sentence expansions based on verb phrases and clauses in the chapters that follow.
- Students will learn how the sentence expansions in Chapters 4 to 10 fit into the framework of sentence patterns, expanding the patterns through modification and subordination and coordination.
- The word classes, described in detail in Part IV, are based on the structural linguists’ division of form and structure classes, rather than the Latin-based eight parts of speech. The students will learn to use their inner language expertise. (
- Instruction is clear and accessible.
- NEW! Each chapter now opens with a bulleted list outlining the purposes and goals of the chapter. Taken with the chapter-ending list of key terms, the opening goal statement provides a comprehensive guide for study and review.
- NEW! “Usage Matters” discussion topics have been updated throughout the text, encouraging students to think about issues of grammar, word choice, and writing conventions that they often find frustrating.
- Traditional diagrams illustrate the patterns and their expansions. The diagram is used as a tool to help students recognize the structural relationship of the various sentence structures and provide a visual framework for the sentence patterns and their expansions.
- NEW! Clearer guidance on the basics of noun phrases and verb phrases is provided in Chapter 2.
- NEW! A new, helpful summary section on the structure classes is offered in Chapter 2.
- Chapter 15, “Rhetorical Grammar,” illustrates the links between grammar knowledge and effective writing, an especially valuable chapter for future teachers.
- Chapter 16, “Purposeful Punctuation,” brings together all of the punctuation discussions from throughout the book, providing a valuable reference tool.
- ELL Issues throughout the chapters highlight mini-lessons on topics of special interest to English Language Learners.
- Abundant exercises allow students to apply and test their knowledge.
- Extensive activities in each chapter include “Investigating Language,” “Questions for Discussion,” and “Classroom Applications.”
- Also included are“Sentences for Practice,”for which answers are provided only in the Instructor’s Manual. All provide further material for class discussions.
- A list of Key Terms also appears in each chapter.
- NEW! Many Exercises and Questions for Discussion have been added or updated with new topics.
- For example, twelve new “Classroom Application” exercises have been added, along with two new single-topic exercises: one on contemporary culture (mix tapes vs. iTunes play lists); the other on New York City’s High Line.
- Many of the exercise sentences have been updated to include the vocabulary of social media and new technology.
New to this Edition
New and updated features of this title
- NEW: Each chapter now opens with a bulleted list outlining the purposes and goals of chapter content. Taken with the chapter-ending list of key terms, the opening goal statement provides a comprehensive guide for study and review.
- NEW: “Usage Matters” is a new feature designed to provide help on issues of grammar, word choice, and writing conventions that students often find frustrating.
- NEW: Ch. 2 now provides clearer guidance on the basics of noun phrases and verb phrases.
- NEW: A helpful summary section on the structure classes is offered in Chapter 2.
- UPDATED: Many Exercises and Questions for Discussion have been updated with new topics.
Table of Contents
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. The Study of Grammar: An Overview
English: A World Language
Three Definitions Of Grammar
Traditional School Grammar
Studying Grammar Today
Language Variety and the Issue of Correctness
Language in the Classroom
For Further Reading
PART II: THE GRAMMAR OF BASIC SENTENCES
2. Words and Phrases
The Open Classes
Nouns and Verbs
The Noun Phrase
The Verb Phrase
NP + VP = S
Adjectives and Adverbs
The Closed Classes
3. Sentence Patterns
Subjects and Predicates
The Sentence Slots
The Be Patterns
Pattern I: NP be ADV/TP
Pattern II: NP be ADJ
Pattern III: NP1 be NP1
The Linking Verb Patterns
Pattern IV: NP V-lnk ADJ
Pattern V: NP1 V-lnk NP1
The Optional Slots
The Intransitive Verb Pattern
Pattern VI: NP V-int
The Transitive Verb Patterns
Pattern VII: NP1 V-tr NP2
Pattern VIII: NP1 V-tr NP2 NP3
Pattern IX: NP1 V-tr NP2 ADJ
Pattern X: NP1 V-tr NP2 NP2
Exceptions to the Ten Sentence Patterns
Interrogative Sentences (Questions)
Imperative Sentences (Commands)
Punctuation and the Sentence Patterns
Diagramming the Sentence Patterns
Notes on the Diagrams
Sentences for Practice
Questions for Discussion
4. Expanding the Main Verb
The Five Verb Forms
The Modal Auxiliaries
The Future Tense
Tense and Aspect
Using the Verb Forms
Exceptions to the Verb-Expansion Rule
The Stand-in Auxiliary Do
The Subjunctive Mood
Sentences for Practice
Questions for Discussion