John J. Ruszkiewicz / Janice R. Walker / Michael Pemberton  
Total pages
April 2005
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Preparing students for the ever-changing demands of conducting research in today's world, Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing establishes a new benchmark for college research guides, serving as a bridge between old and new traditions for researchers who expect to work regularly in both print and electronic environments.

Written in a lively, conversational tone, Bookmarks: A Guide to Writing and Research, offers concrete strategies and models to help students select a topic, refine it, and develop it into a full-fledged research hypothesis; find and position sources; use sources in appropriate and responsible ways to further their projects; and document and complete their final projects for print or electronic publication.   In addition to offering such practical advice, the text also asks students to consider important rhetorical issues, such as how to most effectively address an audience and how to craft a considered, balanced argument.   Bookmarks encourages students to use new technologies to find reliable information and to use the technologies to locate sources that are most appropriate for their topics and purposes.  


  • Offers extensive, up-to-date coverage of research using the latest techniques and resources available to today's students. This accessible, yet comprehensive coverage is the most detailed available in the market.
  • Includes comprehensive coverage of documentation formats and sample papers in MLA, APA, and CMS styles, as well as excerpts from papers illustrating COS and CSE styles.
  • A wealth of sample documents are featured in the book, including an annotated bibliography, an annotated reading, a new formal outline, a sample introduction and conclusion, sample MLA and APA papers. Many of these documents follow a single research project on the topic of downloading music and sharing music files, from beginning to completion.
  • Chapter 1, “Sizing Up Your Research Project,” offers suggestions for setting up calendars, timelines, and flowcharts, and also provides students with specific guidelines for working collaboratively.
  • Chapter 7, “Conducting Field Research,” includes suggestions for conducting interviews, using questionnaires, and making systematic observations.
  • Chapter 9, “Understanding Academic Responsibility and Avoiding Plagiarism” helps students understand and respect intellectual property laws, plagiarism, and the ethical responsibilities of researchers.
  • Companion Website icons in the text highlight places where the CW offers relevant activities, examples, and tutorials for students.
  • “Focus On” boxes throughout the text touch on important issues students are likely to encounter in the research and writing process, and offer advice on how to overcome these issues successfully.  
  • Handy “Checklists,” “Charts,” and “Summaries” throughout the book highlight important guidelines and advice for students to follow as they complete their own research projects.  
  • “Web Sites Worth Knowing” sections at the end of each chapter offer students reliable online sources for further exploration of issues and processes presented in the textbook.
  • “Managing Your Project” activities at the end of each chapter help students stay on task with their own projects, from identifying the hard points of the assignment, compiling a working bibliography, refining their thesis, drafting their project, using sources responsibly, and publishing their projects.

New to this Edition

  • A new separate chapter on “Designing Documents” (Ch. 20) in Part V, gives students advice and models for designing rhetorically effective and compelling research projects, both print and Web-based.
  • A new chapter on “Oral and Visual Presentations” (Ch. 21) shows students how to draft, design, and deliver oral and visual presentations.
  • A unique, new chapter on “Presenting Research in Different Genres” (Ch. 22) shows how to use research to do a presentation, a report, a brochure, and a Web site, with samples and excerpts of each of these kinds of documents.
  • New “Everyday Research” profiles at the beginning of each Part describe how six (6) different professionals use research in their everyday lives and in the workplace.
  • Updated and expanded discussions of using visual sources, citing visual sources, and designing documents.   In addition, even more screen shots are included to illustrate important sites, search engines and databases, bibliographic software, chat software, and more.
  • Updated coverage of using library databases and indexes (throughout and especially in Chapter 5: Using Library Resources), and citing database sources (in the documentation chapters). Streamlined information on locating online resources, managing indexes and using search engines in Chapter 6, "Locating Online Resources."
  • New coverage and example of how to prepare a formal outline is included in the re-titled Chapter 17, “Organizing and Outlining.”
  • New coverage of how to synthesize sources is included in the re-titled Chapter 18, “Drafting Your Project.”
  • New sample documents/papers throughout-including a new sample MLA paper.
  • An updated Companion Website, with references to the site integrated throughout the book.   The new CW features new tutorials, worksheets, new activities, and more.

Table of Contents

All chapters end with “Web Sites Worth Knowing” and “Managing Your Project” assignments.




To the Writer.



1. Starting Your Research Project.

Think of yourself as a researcher and writer.

Size up your assignment carefully.

Establish the hard points of your project.

Define the stages of your project.

Assess your strengths and weaknesses.

Create a schedule for your project.

2. Finding a Topic.

Find a topic in your world.

Connect your topic to a wider community.

Browse the library in your topic area.

Browse the Internet.

3. Establishing a Purpose.

Consider the topic as a question of fact.

Consider the topic as a question of definition.

Consider the topic as a question of value.

Consider the topic as a question of cause and effect.

Consider the topic as a question of consequence.

4. Planning Your Research Strategy.

Pose questions.

Focus your topic choice carefully.

Identify the information your project requires.

Determine where to locate the information your project requires.

Review the library catalogs, databases, and Web directories.

Talk to other people.

Prepare a research proposal or prospectus.

Annotated Research Proposal.


5. Using Library Resources.

Learn about your library.

Use library catalogs efficiently.

Locate the reference room.

Locate suitable bibliographies.

Locate suitable periodical indexes or databases.

Consult biographical resources.

Consult guides to reference works.

Locate statistics.

Check news sources.

Check special collections.

Consult government documents.

Check book and film reviews.

6. Locating Online Resources.

Find the most useful search engines.

Understand how a simple keyword search works.

Refine your search with Boolean operators.

Truncate terms to extend your search.

Refine your search with exact phrases.

Use more than one search engine or database.

Evaluate your electronic search.

Keep a record of your search.

Join in electronic conversations.

Write or email professional organizations.

7. Conducting Field Research.

Conduct interviews.

Conduct surveys.

Make systemic observations.

8. Keeping Track of Information.

Organize and safeguard your materials.

Prepare a working bibliography.

Prepare an annotated bibliography.

Make copies of important sources.

Back up your work frequently.

Annotated Bibliography.


9. Understanding Academic Responsibility and Avoiding Plagiarism.

Understand the ethics of research.

Avoid intentional and unintentional plagiarism.

Understand the special nature of collaborative projects.

Understand intellectual property rights.

Understand the special nature of online resources.

Using graphics, audio, or video files.

10. Evaluating Sources.

Consider the relevance of your sources.

Consider the purpose and bias of a source.

Consider the authority and reputation of a source.

Consider the credentials of experts, authors, and sponsoring agencies.

Consider the timeliness and stability of a source.

Consider how well a source presents key information.

Consider commercial intrusions into a source.

Consult librarians and instructors.

Conduct interviews.

Consider listservs and Usenet groups.

11. Annotating Research Materials.

Highlight key information.

Use marginal comments to start a dialogue with your sources.

Annotated Article.

12. Reviewing and Positioning Sources.

Review data and resources critically.

Position your research materials.

Sample Bibliography with Positioning Information and Sample Quotes.

13. Summarizing and Paraphrasing Sources.

Choose whether to summarize or paraphrase a source.

Summarize sources effectively.

Paraphrase sources effectively.

Acknowledge all borrowings.

14.   Quoting Sources.

Select direct quotations strategically.

Introduce all direct and indirect borrowings.

Integrate graphical elements correctly.

Handle quotation marks correctly.

Tailor quotations to fit your sentences.

Use ellipses to indicate omissions.

Use square brackets to add necessary information to a quotation.

Use [sic] to acknowledge errors in sources.

Present quotations correctly.

Document the sources of all quotations.


15. Reflecting on What You Have.

Consider whether you need to do more research.

Consider whether you have a fair balance of sources and opinions.

Consider whether you need to revise your purpose.

Consider whether you need to narrow your focus.

16. Refining Your Claim.

Be sure you have a point to make.

Grab your reader's attention.

Limit your claim.

17. Organizing and Outlining.

Create a blueprint for your project.

Consider general patterns of organization.

Accommodate dissenting voices.

Follow professional templates.

Create a formal outline.

18. Drafting Your Project.

Prepare a version of your project early.

Draft your project for an audience.

Present your material thoroughly.

Write a strong introduction and conclusion.

Sample Introduction and Conclusion for a Research Project.

Make connections and use transitions.

Write stylishly.

19. Revising Your Project and Reviewing Documentation.

Revise your draft.
Provide a source for every direct quotation.

Provide a source for all paraphrased material.

Document all ideas not from common knowledge.

Document information from field research.

Document all material that might be questioned.

Furnish source information for all graphics, audio files, and other borrowings.

Furnish dates and other useful information.

Use links to document electronic sources.


20. Designing Documents.

Consider the formats your project might take.

Understand the principles of document design.

Apply design principles.

Organize Web projects logically.

Submit your project professionally.

21. Preparing Oral and Visual Presentations.

Designing oral and visual presentations.

Drafting oral and visual presentations.

Delivering oral and visual presentations.

Considering special situations.

22. Presenting Research in Many Genres.

Presenting research in different genres.


Newsletters and brochures.

Web sites.


23. COS Documentation.

How do you use COS documentation?

COS form directory - Humanities (MLA).

Sample COS pages - Humanities (MLA).

COS form directory - Sciences (APA).

Sample COS pages - Sciences (APA).

24. MLA Documentation.

How do you use MLA documentation?

MLA form directory.

Sample MLA paper.

25. APA Documentation.

How do you use APA documentation?

APA form directory.

Sample APA paper.

26. CMS Documentation.

CMS notes.

CMS bibliographies.

CMS form directory.

Sample CMS paper.

27. CSE Documentation.

Provide in-text citations.

List sources used.





Glossary of Computer Terms.

Instructor Resources