Preparing students for the ever-changing demands of conducting research in today's world, Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing establishes a new benchmark for college research guides, serving as a bridge between old and new traditions for researchers who expect to work regularly in both print and electronic environments.Written in a lively, conversational tone, Bookmarks: A Guide to Writing and Research, offers concrete strategies and models to help students select a topic, refine it, and develop it into a full-fledged research hypothesis; find and position sources; use sources in appropriate and responsible ways to further their projects; and document and complete their final projects for print or electronic publication. In addition to offering such practical advice, the text also asks students to consider important rhetorical issues, such as how to most effectively address an audience and how to craft a considered, balanced argument. Bookmarks encourages students to use new technologies to find reliable information and to use the technologies to locate sources that are most appropriate for their topics and purposes.
All chapters end with “Web Sites Worth Knowing” and “Managing Your Project” assignments.
To the Writer.
I. BEGINNING RESEARCH.
1. Starting Your Research Project.
Think of yourself as a researcher and writer.
Size up your assignment carefully.
Establish the hard points of your project.
Define the stages of your project.
Assess your strengths and weaknesses.
Create a schedule for your project.
2. Finding a Topic.
Find a topic in your world.
Connect your topic to a wider community.
Browse the library in your topic area.
Browse the Internet.
3. Establishing a Purpose.
Consider the topic as a question of fact.
Consider the topic as a question of definition.
Consider the topic as a question of value.
Consider the topic as a question of cause and effect.
Consider the topic as a question of consequence.
4. Planning Your Research Strategy.
Focus your topic choice carefully.
Identify the information your project requires.
Determine where to locate the information your project requires.
Review the library catalogs, databases, and Web directories.
Talk to other people.
Prepare a research proposal or prospectus.
Annotated Research Proposal.
II. GATHERING IDEAS AND INFORMATION.
5. Using Library Resources.
Learn about your library.
Use library catalogs efficiently.
Locate the reference room.
Locate suitable bibliographies.
Locate suitable periodical indexes or databases.
Consult biographical resources.
Consult guides to reference works.
Check news sources.
Check special collections.
Consult government documents.
Check book and film reviews.
6. Locating Online Resources.
Find the most useful search engines.
Understand how a simple keyword search works.
Refine your search with Boolean operators.
Truncate terms to extend your search.
Refine your search with exact phrases.
Use more than one search engine or database.
Evaluate your electronic search.
Keep a record of your search.
Join in electronic conversations.
Write or email professional organizations.
7. Conducting Field Research.
Make systemic observations.
8. Keeping Track of Information.
Organize and safeguard your materials.
Prepare a working bibliography.
Prepare an annotated bibliography.
Make copies of important sources.
Back up your work frequently.
III. WORKING WITH SOURCES.
9. Understanding Academic Responsibility and Avoiding Plagiarism.
Understand the ethics of research.
Avoid intentional and unintentional plagiarism.
Understand the special nature of collaborative projects.
Understand intellectual property rights.
Understand the special nature of online resources.
Using graphics, audio, or video files.
10. Evaluating Sources.
Consider the relevance of your sources.
Consider the purpose and bias of a source.
Consider the authority and reputation of a source.
Consider the credentials of experts, authors, and sponsoring agencies.
Consider the timeliness and stability of a source.
Consider how well a source presents key information.
Consider commercial intrusions into a source.
Consult librarians and instructors.
Consider listservs and Usenet groups.
11. Annotating Research Materials.
Highlight key information.
Use marginal comments to start a dialogue with your sources.
12. Reviewing and Positioning Sources.
Review data and resources critically.
Position your research materials.
Sample Bibliography with Positioning Information and Sample Quotes.
13. Summarizing and Paraphrasing Sources.
Choose whether to summarize or paraphrase a source.
Summarize sources effectively.
Paraphrase sources effectively.
Acknowledge all borrowings.
14. Quoting Sources.
Select direct quotations strategically.
Introduce all direct and indirect borrowings.
Integrate graphical elements correctly.
Handle quotation marks correctly.
Tailor quotations to fit your sentences.
Use ellipses to indicate omissions.
Use square brackets to add necessary information to a quotation.
Use [sic] to acknowledge errors in sources.
Present quotations correctly.
Document the sources of all quotations.
IV. DEVELOPING THE PROJECT.
15. Reflecting on What You Have.
Consider whether you need to do more research.
Consider whether you have a fair balance of sources and opinions.
Consider whether you need to revise your purpose.
Consider whether you need to narrow your focus.
16. Refining Your Claim.
Be sure you have a point to make.
Grab your reader's attention.
Limit your claim.
17. Organizing and Outlining.
Create a blueprint for your project.
Consider general patterns of organization.
Accommodate dissenting voices.
Follow professional templates.
Create a formal outline.
18. Drafting Your Project.
Prepare a version of your project early.
Draft your project for an audience.
Present your material thoroughly.
Write a strong introduction and conclusion.
Sample Introduction and Conclusion for a Research Project.
Make connections and use transitions.
19. Revising Your Project and Reviewing Documentation.
Revise your draft.
Provide a source for every direct quotation.
Provide a source for all paraphrased material.
Document all ideas not from common knowledge.
Document information from field research.
Document all material that might be questioned.
Furnish source information for all graphics, audio files, and other borrowings.
Furnish dates and other useful information.
Use links to document electronic sources.
V. PRESENTING YOUR RESEARCH.
20. Designing Documents.
Consider the formats your project might take.
Understand the principles of document design.
Apply design principles.
Organize Web projects logically.
Submit your project professionally.
21. Preparing Oral and Visual Presentations.
Designing oral and visual presentations.
Drafting oral and visual presentations.
Delivering oral and visual presentations.
Considering special situations.
22. Presenting Research in Many Genres.
Presenting research in different genres.
Newsletters and brochures.
23. COS Documentation.
How do you use COS documentation?
COS form directory - Humanities (MLA).
Sample COS pages - Humanities (MLA).
COS form directory - Sciences (APA).
Sample COS pages - Sciences (APA).
24. MLA Documentation.
How do you use MLA documentation?
MLA form directory.
Sample MLA paper.
25. APA Documentation.
How do you use APA documentation?
APA form directory.
Sample APA paper.
26. CMS Documentation.
CMS form directory.
Sample CMS paper.
27. CSE Documentation.
Provide in-text citations.
List sources used.
Glossary of Computer Terms.