Community Health in the 21st Century introduces readers to their roles and responsibilities as members of a global community addressing shared health concerns.
This text is the first of its kind to thoroughly explore social, political, economic, and ethical issues associated with community health from a global perspective. The text emphasizes the impact these perspectives have on possible solutions to important health concerns. It addresses environmental issues, school health programs, and unique concerns of community populations such as ethnically diverse people, people of color, the differently abled, older Americans, children, migrants and farm workers, gay men, lesbians, and women. The book acquaints the reader with the roles and responsibilities of community/public health educators, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, Healthy People 2010 emphasis areas, and target populations affected by issues of the 21st century.
- People are recognized as the most important part of community health issues, and special populations are incorporated throughout the text to provide a global and holistic perspective.
- Valuable tools, such as Web information and addresses, prevention ideas, and related organizations, provide excellent resources for students.
- Chapter objectives, summaries, questions, exercises, and references in every chapter help students understand and apply the chapter content.
- Informational boxes in every chapter present interesting and current data.
- In-chapter discussion questions and politically and socially conscious exercises in each chapter encourage critical thinking and provide discussion about one's own community issues.
- Section V emphasizes important environmental health issues to illustrate the relationship between humans and their environment and to prepare community health educators to be observant and knowledgeable.
New to this Edition
- Internet Interactive Activities in every chapter simulate the research that health educators perform when planning prevention programs or assessing health needs.
- Throughout the text, comparisons are drawn between what was accomplished by the end of Healthy People 2000 and the new target objectives of Healthy People 2010.
- The history, purpose, and requirements of CHES certification are presented to ensure that future health educators are aware of this professional requirement and can prepare for testing before graduation.
- Chapter 8 introduces the reader to two relatively new leading causes of death in the 21st century, kidney disease and chronic liver diseases, to help them anticipate providing risk prevention education programs.
- Three minority populations now included in Healthy People 2010, gay men, lesbians, and people with disabilities, are discussed in Chapter 11 to ensure that health educators possess a broad, foundational knowledge base and are prepared to work effectively with populations with which they may not be familiar.
Table of Contents
I. A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH. 1. An Introduction to Community Health.
The Global Nature of Community Health.
What is Community Health?
Community or Public Health?
What are the Latest Community Health Issues?
A Focus on Prevention.
Healthy People 2010.
The Roles of the Community Health Educator.
Community Health Education Specialist.
Is Community Health Political?2. The History, Administration and Organization of Community Health.
The Origins of Public and Community Health.
Ancient and Pre-Modern History.
The Middle Ages and Pre-Colonization.
Early Health Care in America.
Health Care Delivery.
The Role of Federal Government.
The Role of State Health Departments.
The Role of Local Health Departments.
International Organizations.3. Financing and Providing Health Care.
The Economics of Health Care.
Why Is There Inadequate Health Care for All Americans?
Low Income Single Parents.
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs).
Preferred Provider Organizations.
The Health Care system.
Traditional Financing of Health Care.
Block Grants.4. The Global Community and its Health Care Issues.
Community Health Issues Associated with Population Growth.
Birth and Death Rates.
Health and Urbanization.
Current International Objectives.5. Epidemiological Methods and Language.
History of Epidemiology.
The Science of Epidemiology.
The language of Epidemiology.
Epidemiological Research Studies.
II. THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH: LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE. 6. Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Cerebrovascular Diseases.
Preventing Heart Disease.
Other Forms of Tobacco.
Stress and Personality Traits.
The Most Prevalent Cancers.
Preventing Cancer.7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Pneumonia and Influenza, Unintentional Injuries, Diabetes.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Motor Vehicle Accidents.
Consumer Product Safety Act.
Diabetes.8. Suicide, Nephritis, Chronic Liver Disease, HIV/ AIDS.
Chronic Liver Diseases.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
HIV/AIDS in the United States.
III. UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNITY AND ITS PEOPLE. 9. Infants, Children and Adolescents.
Children of the Planet.
Low Birth Weight.
Children, Adolescents and Young Adults.
The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Gangs.10. Older Adults.
The Demographics of Older Adults.
Older People of Color.
Long Term Health Care.
Characteristics of Older Adults.
Health Priorities of Older People.
Causes of Premature Death.
Community Health Interventions.
Ageism.11. Ethnically Diverse People: People of Color, Immigrants and Migrant Farmers.
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.
Disparities in Minority Health Education.
Cultural Sensitivity.12. Diverse Peoples: Lesbians, Gay Men, and Differently Abled.
Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexual Communities.
Lesbians and Gay Men.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Gay Men's Issues.
Differently Abled People.
Ableism.13. Women's Issues.
The World Looks at Women's Health.
The Primary Health Care Issues of Women.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
The Menstrual Cycle.
IV. COMMUNITY HEALTH PRIORITIES AND ISSUES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY. 14. Communicable Diseases.
Communicable Diseases in Contemporary Society.
Alvine Discharge Diseases.
Vector Borne Diseases.
Open Lesion Diseases.
Microorganisms That Cause Communicable Diseases.
Emerging New Diseases.
Preventing Communicable Diseases: Immunization.
Vaccinating for Immunity.15. Occupational Health.
Noise Related Health Problems.
The Cost of Occupational Diseases.
Prevention.16. Social Illness in the Community: Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs, and Violence.
History of Mental Health.
Classification of Mental Disorders.
The Impact of Mental Disorders.
Race and Mental Health.
Gender as a Mental Health Determinant.
Types of Mental Illness.
Drugs and Alcohol.
Minority Populations and Alcohol Facts.
Women and Alcohol Use.
Types of Drugs.
Substance Abuse Prevention.
Violence as a Community Health Illness.
Contributing Factors to Violence.
Prevention.17. Comprehensive School Health Programs.
A Need for School Health.
Historical Events Leading to Comprehensive School Health Programs.
Comprehensive School Health Programs.
Comprehensive School Health Education.
Counseling, Psychological and Social Services.
Healthy School Environment.
Health Promotion for School Staff.
Implementing Comprehensive School Health Programs.
Local Coalition Building.
Barriers to Comprehensive School Health Programs.
Moving Beyond Barriers to Healthier Schools.
Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Health Program.
V. THE COMMUNITY AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ISSUES. 18. The Air We Breathe.
Contributing Factors to Air Pollution.
Emissions and Ozone Depletion.
Smoke and Smog.
Health Impairment In Humans.
The Clean Air Act.
The Six Criterion Pollutants.
Indoor Air Pollution.19. Water Safety.
Industry and Agriculture.
Waterborne Disease Causing Agents.
Oxygen Demanding Wastes.
The Clean Water Act.
Purification of Drinking Water.
Sewage Water and Treatment.
Swimming Pools.20. Food Safety.
Other Foodborne Disease Transmitting Agents.
Shellfish.21. The Throwaway Society.
A History of Waste.
Solid Waste Disposal.
On-Site Volume Reduction Alternatives.
Off-Site Alternatives to Landfills.
Infectious and Medical Waste.
Other Hazardous Waste.