Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century

Spencer G. Niles / JoAnn E Harris-Bowlsbey  
Total pages
November 2013
Related Titles

Product detail

Product Price CHF Available  
Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century


You'll find the eBook here.:

Free evaluation copy for lecturers


This top-selling text presents theories, assessments, planning tools, resources, and technologies relevant to modern career development. With four chapters devoted to career development in educational settings, this book analyzes the aspects of career development interventions for the elementary, middle and high school, higher ed, and community audiences. Also provided are strategies for implementing career counseling techniques and creating and designing career development programs.


  • Focuses on the application of career theory and provides examples of interventions with real people.
  • Takes a practical, straightforward approach and offers case studies to expose students to all of the essential competencies required for the professional practice of career counseling.
  • Readers benefit from the authors’ extensive experience as leaders in the field for many years as career practitioners, scholars, and teachers of career development courses throughout the world.
  • Unique — Unlike other books in the field,this text includes a chapter on Ethics (Ch. 14).

  • Tips from the Field appear throughout the text and offer practical tips and guidelines
  • Student Activities appear at the end of each chapter and give readers the opportunity to apply chapter content. 

New to this Edition

  • Discussions of the impact of globalization, contemporary issues, and the financial crisis of the 21st century on career development
  • New technology sections covering web-based career guidance systems and the use of social networking for career guidance and job-seeking.
  • Access to the Kuder® Career Planning System, an industry-leading web-based career planning system that provides outstanding resources for helping secondary school students develop their educational and career plans.
  • MyCounselingLab connects course content to video- and case-based real world scenarios, and provides:
    • Building Counseling Skills exercises that offer opportunities for students to develop and practice skills critical to their success as professional helpers.  Hints and feedback provide scaffolding and reinforce key concepts.
    • Assignments & Activities assess students’ understanding of key concepts and skill development. 
    • Multiple-Choice Quizzes help students gauge their understanding of important topics and prepare for success on licensure examinations.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Career Development Interventions 

The Meaning of Work Across Time 
Linking Work with Worth 
Providing Systematic Career Development Interventions 
Definition of Terms 
Career Development 
Career Development Interventions 
Career Counseling 
Career Education 

Career Development Programs 
Important Events in the History of Career Development Interventions 

Frank Parsons 
Future Trends in Career Development Interventions 

View Career Decisions as Values-Based Decisions 

Move Beyond Objective Assessment 
Move to Counseling-Based Career Assistance 

Move to a Stronger Emphasis on Multicultural Career Development Theories and Interventions 
Move to Focusing on Multiple Life Roles 

CHAPTER 2: Understanding and Applying Theories of Career Development 
Career Development Theories 
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory 
Life Span 
Life Space 
Applying Super’s Theory 
Contextual Factors Influencing Life-Role Salience 
Evaluating Super’s Theory 
Linda Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation 
Stage One: Orientation to Size and Power 
Stage Two: Orientation to Sex Roles 
Stage Three: Orientation to Social Valuation 
Stage Four: Orientation to the Internal, Unique Self 
Applying Gottfredson’s Theory to Practice 
Evaluating Gottfredson’s Theory 
John Holland’s Theory of Types and Person-Environment Interactions 
The Realistic Type 
The Investigative Type 
The Artistic Type 
The Social Type 
The Enterprising Type 
The Conventional Type 
Vocational Identity 
Applying Holland’s Theory 
Evaluating Holland’s Theory 
John Krumboltz’s Learning Theory of Career Counseling 
The Learning Theory of Career Counseling 
Applying LTCC 
Evaluating Career Development Interventions 
Evaluating LTCC 

CHAPTER 3: Understanding and Applying Recent Theories of Career Development 
Recent Theories 
Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s Social Cognitive Career Theory 
Applying SCCT 
Evaluating SCCT 
The Cognitive Information Processing Approach 
Applying the CIP Approach 
Evaluating CIP 
Brown’s Values-Based, Holistic Model of Career and Life-Role Choices and Sat-isfaction 
Applying the Values-Based Approach 
Evaluating the Values-Based Approach 
Hansen’s Integrative Life Planning 
Applying ILP 
Evaluating ILP 
Postmodern Approaches 
Creating Narratives 
Contextualizing Career Development 
Constructivist Career Counseling 

CHAPTER 4: Providing Culturally Competent Career Development Interventions 
Traditional Assumptions of Career Theories in the United States 
Universal Versus Culture-Specific Models 
Identity Development Models 
Racial Identity Models 
Gender Identity Models 
Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Identity Models 
Persons with Disabilities 

CHAPTER 5: Assessment and Career Planning 
The Relationship of Assessment to the Career Planning Process 
Step 1: Become Aware of the Need to Make Career Decisions 
Step 2: Learn About or Reevaluate Vocational Self-Concept 
Step 3: Identify Occupational Alternatives 
Step 4: Obtain Information About Identified Alternatives 
Step 5: Make Tentative Choices from Among Available Occupations 
Step 6: Make Educational Choices 
Step 7: Implement a Vocational Choice 
Purposes of Assessment 
Learning More about the Needs of the Student or Client 
Learning More about Clients and Helping Them Learn More about Them-selves 
Determining the Change or Progress of an Individual or Group 
Responsibilities and Competencies of the Counselor 
Possess a General Knowledge about Assessment 
Have Detailed Knowledge about the Instruments Used 
Evaluate the Instrument for Usefulness with Diverse Populations 
Prepare Students or Clients Adequately 
Administer Instruments Properly 
Interpret Instruments Properly 
Follow Through with Clients 
Informal Assessments 
Formal Assessments 
Types of Formal Assessments 
Ways in Which Assessment Instruments May Be Administered 
Types of Reports 
Selection of Instruments 

CHAPTER 6: Career Information and Resources 
The Counselor’s Role in Providing Data 
Barriers and Decision Styles 
Career Information and Diversity 
The Client’s Role in Receiving Data 
Types of Data Needed by Clients 
Programs of Study 
Financial Aid 
Other Methods of Collecting Data 
Organizing Occupations 
The Holland System 
The World-of-Work Map 
The Guide to Occupational Exploration Clusters 
O*Net Classification System 
U.S. Department of Education (now called the States’) Career Clusters 

The Career Center 
Helping Clients Turn Data Into Information 

CHAPTER 7: Using Technology to Support Career Counseling and Planning 
Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems 
Computer Capabilities 
Adding High Touch to High Tech 
The Internet as the Deliverer of Computer-Assisted Systems 
Types of Computer-Assisted Systems 
Assessment Systems 

Career Information Systems 
Career Planning Systems 
Choosing a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System 
The Counselor and the Computer 
Session 1: Encounter and Exploration Stage 
Session 2: Working Stage 
Session 3: Action Stage 
Issues Related to Cybercounseling 

CHAPTER 8: Career Counseling Strategies and Techniques for the 21st Century 
Expanding the Limited View of Career Counseling 
Career Counseling in the 21st Century 
Designing Career Counseling Strategies for the 21st Century 
Providing Counseling-Based Career Assistance 
Providing Support in Career Counseling 
A Framework for Career Counseling 
The Beginning or Initial Phase of Career Counseling 
The Middle or Working Phase of Career Counseling 
The Ending or Termination Phase of Career Counseling 
Career Counseling Groups 
Career Counseling Professional Designations and Related Service Providers 

CHAPTER 9: Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Career Development Programs and Services 
Steps for Designing and Implementing a Career Development Program 
Step 1: Define the Target Population and Its Characteristics 
Step 2: Determine the Needs of the Target Population 
Step 3: Write Measurable Objectives to Meet Needs 
Step 4: Determine How to Deliver the Career Planning Services 
Step 5: Determine the Content of the Program 
Step 6: Determine the Cost of the Program 
Step 7: Begin to Promote and Explain Your Services 
Step 8: Start Promoting and Delivering the Full-Blown Program of Ser-vices 
Step 9: Evaluate the Program 
Planning Evaluation 
Types of Data Collected 

Benchmarks for Evaluation 
Methods of Evaluation 
Using the Results of Evaluation 
Roadblocks to Evaluation 
Step 10: Revise the Program as Needed 
Some Sample Programs 
Example 1: A Middle School 
Example 2: A High School 
Example 3: A University 
Example 4: A Corporation 
Example 5: A Community Agency 

CHAPTER 10: Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools 
Overview of Career Development Interventions in the Schools 
Systematic and Coordinated Planning for Career Development Programs in the Schools 
Career Development in the Elementary Schools 
Goals of Career Development Interventions at the Elementary School Level 
Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools 
Parental Involvement 

CHAPTER 11: Career Development Interventions in Middle and High Schools 
Middle/Junior High School 
Career Development Goals for Middle/Junior High School Students 
Career Development Interventions in Middle/Junior High Schools 
High School 
Career Development Goals for High School Students 
Career Development Interventions in High Schools 

CHAPTER 12: Career Development Interventions in Higher Education 
The Career Needs of Higher Education Students 
The Evolution of Career Development Interventions in Higher Education 
Career Development Competencies in Adulthood 
Education and Occupational Exploration 
Career Planning 
Models, Services, and Standards for Career Development Interventions in Higher Education 
Managing Career Services in Higher Education 

CHAPTER 13: Career Development Interventions in Community Settings 
Training, Certification, and Licensure 
Case Management 
Similarities and Differences in Community-Based Settings 
Settings for Community-Based Career Counselors 
Private Practice 
The World Wide Web: Cybercounseling 
Mental Health Centers 
Substance Abuse Centers 
Rehabilitation Settings 
Corrections and Probation 
Military Settings 
Job Service Offices and One-Stop Centers 
Corporations and Other Organizations

CHAPTER 14: Ethical Issues in Career Development Interventions 
Ethical Dilemmas Versus Moral Temptations 
Using Principles to Resolve Ethical Decisions 
The Role of Values in Defining Career Development Interventions
Using Ethical Codes 
Progress on Ethical Challenges Facing Career Counselors 
Are All Individual Career Interventions Governed by the Same Ethical Stan-dards? 
Should Those Without Traditional Training and Credentials As Professional Counselors Provide Career Services? 
How Should the Internet Be Used in Career Development Interventions?
The Ethical Standards of the NCDA 
Section A: The Professional Relationship 
Section B: Confidentiality, Privileged Communication, and Privacy 
Section C: Professional Responsibility 
Section D: Relationships with Other Professionals 
Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation 
Section F: Use of the Internet in Career Services 
Section G: Supervision, Training, and Teaching 
Section H: Research and Publication 
Section I: Resolving Ethical Issues 

APPENDIX A- American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice 

- National Career Development Association Ethical Standards 
APPENDIX C Educational and Career Planning Portfolio 
APPENDIX D Career Counseling Competencies of the National Career Development Association (NCDA)
APPENDIX E National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG) Framework