Course for Teaching English Learners, A

Allyn & Bacon
Lynne T. Diaz-Rico  
Total pages
April 2007

Product detail

Title no longer available


A Course for Teaching English Learners will equip teachers to work with English language learners, balancing fundamental principles with practical classroom techniques.


A Course for Teaching English Learners ensures that both pre- and in-service teachers alike are adequately prepared to work with English language learners by offering in a single volume a wealth of background principles underlying the cultural, linguistic, and sociocultural contexts and foundations of learning and by providing a comprehensive framework that doesn’t only focus on reading and writing. Unlike other texts, the CTEL Handbook provides a flexible, comprehensive underlying framework that outlines both psychological and sociocultural contexts for English language acquisition and structured content delivery across the elementary, middle school, and high school grades.

Provisions in the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) call for yearly accountability in English language growth for language–minority students.  This book is the first to address the new focus on testing procedures, as well as adaptation for English learners during the test-taking process.

Throughout, Lynne Diaz-Rico’s expertise in matters related to educating English learners is consistently evident. Not only does she provide the necessary background knowledge needed to educate English learners but she also includes a variety of classroom methods for English language development in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and computer-assisted instruction, making this text equally effective as a classroom text and as a reference tool for practicing teachers.


  • Offers a comprehensive introduction to the needs of English learners with a strong focus for the need on teacher preparation as well as a survey of the professional opportunities in the field.


  • Chapter 1 offers in-depth  as well as entertaining set of concepts introducing language structure needed to understand how to teach language.


  • Chapter 2 includes a survey of first- and second-language acquisition principles and theories in an understandable and concise manner and with clear connections to ELD practices.


  • Chapter 3 covers different assessment types with connections to instruction providing excellent current assessment ideas and practice.


  • Connects English-language development and content instruction (Chs. 5, 6, 7).


  • Thorough treatment of  “Specially designed academic instruction in English” (SDAIE) in Chs. 5, 6, 7.


  • Cultural foundation and crosscultural teaching offer important links between culture and language acquisition in Chs. 8 & 9.

Table of Contents




Teaching English Learners


Chapter 1

Language Structure and Use  

Ah, Language!  

Language Universals  

All Languages Have Structure  

Language Is Dynamic  

Language Is Complex  

Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language  



Pitch and Rhythm  

Intonation Patterns  

Teaching Pronunciation  

Morphology: The Words of Language  


Word-Formation Processes  

Using Morphemes in Teaching  

Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language  

Explicit Teaching of Syntax  

Semantics: The Meanings of Language  

Semantic Challenges  

Acquiring Vocabulary  

Academic Vocabulary  

Vocabulary Teaching and Concept Development  

Semantic Shifts  

Language Functions  

Academic Language Functions  

Functions and Classroom Routines  

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency  

A Curriculum That Promotes Academic Language  

Evaluating Curricula for Academic Language  


Academic Discourse  

Oral Discourse in the Classroom  

Discourse That Affirms Students’ Voices  

Pragmatics: The Influence of Context  

Appropriate Language  

Nonverbal Communication  

Evaluating the Pragmatic Features of School Programs  

Dialects and Language Variation  

Dialects and the Education of English Learners  

Common Features That Constitute Dialects  

How Dialects Exhibit Social and Ethnic Differences  

Attitudes toward Dialects  

Dialects and Style  

Vernacular Dialects and Language Teaching  

Chapter 2

First- and Second-Language Development and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement  

Processes and Stages of Language Acquisition  

First-Language Acquisition  

Second-Language Acquisition  

First- and Second-Language Acquisition: Commonalities  

Theories and Models of Second-Language Acquisition  

Former Theories That Still Influence Current Practice  

Current Theories of Language Development  

Factors That Influence Second-Language Acquisition  

Psychological Factors: The Learner’s Background  

Psychological Factors: Social—Emotional  

Psychological Factors: Cognitive  

Sociocultural and Political Factors That Influence Instruction  

Part II

Assessment and Instruction

Chapter 3

Assessment of English Learners  

Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction  

Standards-Based Education: Federal Government Mandates  

Standards for English-Language Development  

Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment  

Assessment-Based Instruction  

Identification, Placement, Instruction, Progress Tracking, and Redesignation/Reclassification of English Learners  

Issues of Fairness in Testing English Learners  

Types of Classroom Assessments for English Learners  

Selecting and Using Appropriate Classroom Assessments  

Assigning Grades to English Learners  

Test Accommodation  

Language and Content Area Assessment  

Combining Language and Content Standards and Learning-Strategy Objectives  

English-Language Development Assessments  

Interpreting the Results of Assessment  

Special Issues in Assessment  

Academic and Learning Problems That English Learners May Experience  

Identification, Referral, and Early Intervention of English Learners with Special Needs  

Teaching Strategies for the CLD Special Learner  

Chapter 4

Programs for English Learners  

The History of Multilingual Competency in the United States  

Early Bilingualism in the United States  

The Struggles for Language Education Rights in the Twentieth Century  

Legal and Legislative Mandates Supporting Language Education Rights  

Federal and State Requirements for ELD Services  

No Child Left Behind  

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act  

Proposition 227  

Williams et al. v. State of California  

Lau v. Nichols  

The Politics of Bilingual Education  

Support for Heritage-Language Proficiency  

Support for Two-Way (Dual) Immersion  

English-Only Efforts  

What Is “Fully Qualified” under NCLB?  

Empowerment Issues Related to English Learners  

Equity and Policy Issues Related to English Learners  

Components of ELD Programs  

Dual-Language Development Programs (Additive Bilingualism)  

Transitional Bilingual Education  

Structured English Immersion  

Newcomer (Front-Loaded) English  

English-Language Development Programs  

English-Language Development and Academic Instruction  

The SDAIE-Enhanced Content Classroom  

A Model for SDAIE  

Parental Rights and Communicating with Families  

Parental Rights  

School—Community Partnerships  

Chapter 5

English-Language/Literacy Development and Content Instruction  

Foundations of English-Language Literacy  

Connections between Oracy, Literacy, and Social Functions  

Personal Factors Affecting Literacy Development in English  

Promoting Literacy Development in English Across the Curriculum  

Scaffolding Strategies in English Literacy Across the Curriculum  

Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE  

Planning for Standards-Based ELD and Content Instruction  

Organizing the Environment to Enhance Interaction  

Grouping for Student Success  

Teaching Collaboratively  

Differentiated Instruction in ELD and SDAIE  

Bridging: Accessing and Building Prior Knowledge  

Appealing to Diverse Learning Modalities  

Access to Cognitive Academic Language  

Teaching with SDAIE Strategies  

Modifying Language without Simplification  

Scaffolding: Temporary Support for Learning  

Guided and Independent Practice That Promotes Students’ Active Language Use  

Formative Assessment and Reteaching  

Summative Assessment, Culminating Performance, and Metalearning  

Reflective Pedagogy  

Effective Resource Use in ELD and SDAIE  

Selecting and Using Appropriate Materials  

Modifying Materials for Linguistic Accessibility  

Culturally Appealing Materials  

Technological Resources to Enhance Instruction  

Teacher Commitment  

Chapter 6

English-Language Development  

The Focus on Communicative Interaction  

What Is Communicative Competence?  

The Cognitive Perspective  

An Interlanguage Perspective  

The Role of Grammar  

Benefits of Explicit Instruction of Language  

The Role of Feedback in Explicit Teaching  

The Supplemental Role of Implicit Learning  

Teaching Grammar  

Content-Based English-Language Development  

Collaboration and Reciprocity  

CBI-ELD: Lesson Planning  

English-Language Oracy Development  

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills  

Listening Processes  

Speaking, Communication Skills, and the ELD Standards  

English-Language Literacy Development  

Reading First in the Primary Language  

ELD and ELA Standards in Reading  

Purposes for Reading  

Standards-Based Reading Instruction  

Developing Word Analysis Skills  

Developing Reading Fluency  

Reading Processes  

Developing Reading Comprehension  

Developing Literary Response and Analysis Skills  

Secondary-Level Content Reading  

Writing and the English Learner  

Generation 1.5 and College Writing  

Writing as a Social Construction  

Stages of Writing Development for Young English Learners  

Handwriting in English  

The Writing Workshop  

Issues with ESL Writing  

Chapter 7

Planning and Implementing SDAIE-Based Content Instruction  

Planning SDAIE Lessons  

Setting Objectives  

Selecting and Modifying Materials  

Differentiated Instructional Delivery in the Content Domains  

Bridging: Accessing Prior Knowledge and Building Schemata  

Vocabulary Front-Loading  

Strategic Teaching Using Diverse Modalities  

Access to Cognitive Academic Language Across the Content Areas  

Modifying Language without Simplification in Content Delivery  

Scaffolded Content Instruction  

Guided and Independent Practice That Promotes Students’ Active Language Use  

Resources for Independent Practice  

Formative Assessment and Reteaching Content

Summative Assessment of Content Lessons  

Instructional Needs beyond the Classroom  

Part III

Culture and Inclusion

Chapter 8

Culture and Cultural Diversity and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement  

Cultural Concepts and Perspectives  

What Is Culture?  

Key Concepts about Culture  

Looking at Culture from the Inside Out  

Cultural Diversity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives  

Political and Socioeconomic Factors Affecting English Learners and Their Families  

Educational Issues Involving English Learners beyond the Classroom  

Cultural Contact  

Fears about Cultural Adaptation  

Processes of Cultural Contact  

Psychological and Social—Emotional Issues Involving Cultural Contact  

Resolving Problems of Cultural Contact  

Cultural Diversity in the United States and California  

The Demographics of Change  

Migration and Immigration in the United States and California  

Contemporary Causes of Migration and Immigration  

The Cultural and Linguistic Challenges of Diversity  

Intercultural Communication  

Cultural Diversity in Nonverbal Communication  

Cultural Diversity in Verbal Communication  

Strategies for Intercultural Communication in the School and Classroom  

Teaching Intercultural Communication  

Investigating Ourselves as Cultural Beings  

The Personal Dimension  

Cultural Self-Study  

Participating in Growth Relationships  

Chapter 9

Culturally Inclusive Instruction  

The Role of Culture in the Classroom and School  

Acknowledging Students’ Differences  

The Alignment of Home and School  

The Value System of the Teacher and Cultural Accommodation  

Adapting to Students’ Culturally Supported Facilitating or Limiting Attitudes and Abilities  

Educating Students about Diversity  

Global and Multicultural Education  

The Multicultural Curriculum: From Additive to Transformative  

Validating Students’ Cultural Identity  

Promoting Mutual Respect among Students  

Learning about Students’ Cultures  

Ethnographic Techniques  

Students as Sources of Information  

Families as Sources of Information  

Community Members as Sources of Information  

The Internet as an Information Source about Cultures  

Culturally Inclusive Learning Environments  

What Is a Culturally Supportive Classroom?  

Family and Community Involvement  

Value Differences in Family and Community Support for Schooling  

Issues in Family Involvement  

Myths about Families and Other Communication Barriers  

Enhancing Home—School Communication  

Family—Teacher Conferences  

How Families Can Assist in a Child’s Learning  

Internet Resources for Family Involvement  

A Model of Home—School Relationships  

Family Members as Cultural Mediators  

The Home—School Connection  

Involving the Family and Community in School Governance  

Name Index  

Subject Index  


Lynne Diaz-Rico is Professor of Education and Coordinator of the Master of Arts in Education, Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages program at California State University, San Bernardino and co-author of the Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development Handbook (Allyn & Bacon). Her research interests are in accelerated language learning and innovative teacher education.