Continuing in the eighth edition, An Introduction to Database Systems provides a comprehensive introduction to the now very large field of database systems by providing a solid grounding in the foundations of database technology while shedding some light on how the field is likely to develop in the future. This new edition has been rewritten and expanded to stay current with database system trends.
- Provides a solid explanation of the foundations of database technology while discussing how the field may develop in the future.
- Treatment of The Relational Model is second to none.
- Places an exceptionally strong emphasis on principles and insight, not just on formalism.
New to this Edition
- Upgrades SQL level to SQL:1999 throughout text (also SQL:2003 where appropriate).
- Covers a radically new implementation technology, the TransRelational Model, in a new appendix to remain on the cutting edge of database system technology.
- Material on Types expanded into its own chapter (Chapter 5) to reflect the increasing interest in this area.
- Part IV-Transaction Management has been completely rewritten, expanded, and improved.
- Chapter 20 on inheritance and Chapter 23 on temporal databases have been rewritten to reflect recent research developments.
- All chapters on The Relational Model have been completely rewritten.
- A brand new chapter has been added on the relationship between databases and XML.
Table of Contents
(All chapters begin with an Introduction end with a Summary, Exercises, and Reference and Bibliography)
I. PRELIMINARIES. 1. An Overview of Database Management.
What is a database system?
What is a database?
Relational systems and others.2. Database System Architecture.
The three levels of the architecture.
The external level.
The conceptual level.
The internal level.
The database administrator.
The database management system.
Distributed processing.3. An Introduction to Relational Databases.
An informal look at the relational model.
Relations and relvars.
What relations mean.
Base relvars and views.
The suppliers-and-parts database.4. An Introduction to SQL.
Dynamic SQL and SQL/CLI.
SQL is not perfect.
II. THE RELATIONAL MODEL. 5. Types.
Values v Variables.
Types v Representations.
SQL facilities.6. Relations.
SQL facilities.7. Relational Algebra.
The original algebra: Syntax.
The original algebra: Semantics.
What is the algebra for?
Grouping and ungrouping.8. Relational Calculus.
Calculus vs. algebra.
A closer look.
Predicates and propositions.
Relvar predicates and database predicates.
Checking the constraints.
Internal v external constraints.
Correctness v consistency.
Integrity and views.
A constraint classification scheme.
Triggers (a digression).
SQL facilities.10. Views.
What are views for?
Snapshots (a digression).
III. DATABASE DESIGN. 11. Functional Dependencies.
Trivial and nontrivial dependencies.
Closure of a set of dependencies.
Closure of a set of attributes.
Irreducible sets of dependencies.12. Further Normalization I: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF.
Nonloss decomposition and functional dependencies.
First, second, and third normal forms.
Boyce/Codd normal form.
A note on relation-valued attributes.13. Further Normalization II: Higher Normal Forms.
Multi-valued dependencies and fourth normal form.
Join dependencies and fifth normal form.
The normalization procedure summarized.
A note on denormalization.
Orthogonal design (a digression).
Other normal forms.14. Semantic Modeling.
The overall approach.
The E/R model.
Database design with the E/R model.
A brief analysis.
IV. TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT. 15. Recovery.
Savepoints (a digression).
SQL facilities.16. Concurrency.
Three concurrency problems.
The three concurrency problems revisited.
V. FURTHER TOPICS. 17. Security.
Discretionary access control.
Mandatory access control.
SQL facilities.18. Optimization.
A motivating example.
An overview of query processing.
A divide-and-conquer strategy.
Implementing the relational operators.19. Missing Information.
An overview of the 3VL approach.
Some consequences of the foregoing scheme.
Nulls and keys.
Outer join (a digression).
SQL facilities.20. Type Inheritance.
Polymorphism and substitutability.
Variables and assignments.
Specialization by constraint.
Operators, versions, and signatures.
Is a circle an ellipse?
Specialization by constraint revisited.
SQL facilities.21. Distributed Databases.
The twelve objectives.
Problems of distributed systems.
SQL facilities.22. Decision Support.
Aspects of decision support.
Database design for decision support.
Data warehouses and data marts.
Online analytical processing.
SQL facilities.23. Temporal Databases.
What is the problem?
Packing and unpacking relations.
Generalizing the relational operators.
Database work design.
Integrity constraints.24. Logic-Based Databases.
A proof-theoretic view of databases.
Deductive database systems.
Recursive query processing.
VI. OBJECTS, RELATIONS, AND XML. 25. Object Databases.
Objects, classes, methods, and messages.
A closer look.
A cradle-to-grave example.
Miscellaneous issues.26. Object / Relational Databases.
The First Great Blunder.
The Second Great Blunder.
Benefits of true rapprochement
SQL facilities.27. The World Wide Web and XML.
The Web and the Internet.
An overview of XML.
XML data definition.
XML data manipulation.
XML and databases.
APPENDIXES. Appendix A: The TransRelational™ Model.
Three levels of abstraction.
The basic idea.
Implementing the relational operators.Appendix B: SQL Expressions, Table Expressions, and Boolean Expressions. Appendix C: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbol. Appendix D: Online storage structures and access methods, database access: an overview, page sets and files, indexing, hashing, pointer chains, and compression techniques. Index.