Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools

A.V. Aho / Monica S. Lam / R. Sethi / Jeffrey D. Ullman  
Total pages
July 2013
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Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools
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Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools, known to professors, students, and developers worldwide as the 'Dragon Book,' is available in a new edition. Every chapter has been completely revised to reflect developments in software engineering, programming languages, and computer architecture that have occurred since 1986, when the last edition published. The authors, recognizing that few readers will ever go on to construct a compiler, retain their focus on the broader set of problems faced in software design and software development.

New chapters include:

Chapter 10 Instruction-Level Parallelism

Chapter 11 Optimizing for Parallelism and Locality


  • Introduces the theory and practice of compiler design.
  • Covers topics like context-free grammars, fine state machines, and syntax-directed translation.

New to this Edition

  • All new chapter on Interprocedural analysis, written by world-renowned computer scientist, Monica S.Lam.
  • Presents the Five Methods for Translation to explain syntax-directed translation.
  • Illustrates new techniques for data-flow analysis that emphasize the unity of code optimization and other program analysis software.
  • Uses code optimization to work with parallel machines.
  • Explains just-in-time compiling with programming languages such as Java.
  • Discusses garbage collection.
  • Brings all new material together through new case studies.
  • Includes additional practice and tests comprehension of important concepts with Gradiance an online homework and tutorial system.Please note, Gradiance is no longer available with this book.

Table of Contents

1  Introduction

1.1 Language Processors

1.2 The Structure of a Compiler

1.3 The Evolution of Programming Languages

1.4 The Science of Building a Compiler

1.5 Applications of Compiler Technology

1.6 Programming Language Basics

1.7 Summary of Chapter 1

1.8 References for Chapter 1


2 A Simple Syntax-Directed Translator  

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Syntax Definition  

2.3 Syntax-Directed Translation

2.4 Parsing

2.5 A Translator for Simple Expressions  

2.6 Lexical Analysis  

2.7 Symbol Tables

2.8 Intermediate Code Generation

2.9 Summary of Chapter 2


3 Lexical Analysis

3.1 The Role of the Lexical Analyzer

3.2 Input Buffering  

3.3 Specification of Tokens

3.4 Recognition of Tokens

3.5 The Lexical-Analyzer Generator Lex

3.6 Finite Automata

3.7 From Regular Expressions to Automata

3.8 Design of a Lexical-Analyzer Generator

3.9 Optimization of DFA-Based Pattern Matchers  

3.10 Summary of Chapter 3

3.11 References for Chapter 3


4 Syntax Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Context-Free Grammars

4.3 Writing a Grammar

4.4 Top-Down Parsing  

4.5 Bottom-Up Parsing

4.6 Introduction to LR Parsing: Simple LR

4.7 More Powerful LR Parsers

4.8 Using Ambiguous Grammars

4.9 Parser Generators

4.10 Summary of Chapter 4  

4.11 References for Chapter 4


5 Syntax-Directed Translation

5.1 Syntax-Directed Definitions

5.2 Evaluation Orders for SDD's  

5.3 Applications of Syntax-Directed Translation

5.4 Syntax-Directed Translation Schemes

5.5 Implementing L-Attributed SDD's  

5.6 Summary of Chapter 5

5.7 References for Chapter 5  


6 Intermediate-Code Generation

6.1 Variants of Syntax Trees  

6.2 Three-Address Code

6.3 Types and Declarations

6.4 Translation of Expressions  

6.5 Type Checking  

6.6 Control Flow

6.7 Backpatching

6.8 Switch-Statements

6.9 Intermediate Code for Procedures  

6.10 Summary of Chapter 6

6.11 References for Chapter 6


7 Run-Time Environments

7.1 Storage Organization  

7.2 Stack Allocation of Space

7.3 Access to Nonlocal Data on the Stack  

7.4 Heap Management  

7.5 Introduction to Garbage Collection  

7.6 Introduction to Trace-Based Collection

7.7 Short-Pause Garbage Collection

7.8 Advanced Topics in Garbage Collection

7.9 Summary of Chapter 7

7.10 References for Chapter 7


8 Code Generation

8.1 Issues in the Design of a Code Generator

8.2 The Target Language

8.3 Addresses in the Target Code  

8.4 Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs

8.5 Optimization of Basic Blocks

8.6 A Simple Code Generator

8.7 Peephole Optimization  

8.8 Register Allocation and Assignment  

8.9 Instruction Selection by Tree Rewriting  

8.10 Optimal Code Generation for Expressions

8.11 Dynamic Programming Code-Generation

8.12 Summary of Chapter 8  

8.13 References for Chapter 8  


9 Machine-Independent Optimizations

9.1 The Principal Sources of Optimization

9.2 Introduction to Data-Flow Analysis

9.3 Foundations of Data-Flow Analysis  

9.4 Constant Propagation  

9.5 Partial-Redundancy Elimination

9.6 Loops in Flow Graphs

9.7 Region-Based Analysis

9.8 Symbolic Analysis

9.9 Summary of Chapter 9

9.10 References for Chapter 9