Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

Series
Pearson
Author
Neil R. Carlson / Harold L. Miller / Donald S. Heth / John W. Donahoe / G. Neil Martin  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
7
Language
English
Total pages
668
Pub.-date
November 2013
ISBN13
9781292039695
ISBN
1292039698
Related Titles


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Psychology: Pearson New International Edition
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Description

For undergraduate courses in Introductory Psychology for two and four year institutions.

 

A rigorous biological and evolutionary approach to introductory psychology text written by an international team of authors.

 

Based on the connections between behavior and its biological underpinnings, Psychology: The Science of Behavior presents psychological behavior in the context of its adaptive significance. The Seventh Edition again combines a scholarly survey of research with real-world applications of research results to problems that confront us today. The authors apply the discovery method to take students inside the research process to foster a critical understanding of the logic and significance of empirical findings

Features

  • Each chapter contains a special issues feature box called Focus On, which highlights a controversial issue, an important cross-cultural research, or an unanswered question in the field of psychology. Encouraging students to hone their critical thinking skills, this feature includes engaging and relevant topics such as the cultural differences in the definition of intelligence, how the brain is like a computer, cultural contexts for remembering, cognitive development and television viewing, the evolution of love, and assessing therapeutic efficacy.
  • Each chapter places emphasis on international perspectives, offering students a unique global view of the field of psychological research. International research is emphasized on topics such as crashing memories, response bias, social attachment, eye movement, and behavioral therapy, among others.

  • The visual program continues to highlight our biological and anatomical emphasis. We have again tapped the talents of Jay Alexander, the medical illustrator responsible for the successful art program in Carlson’s Physiology of Behavior textbook. Jay has reviewed and updated the art program throughout this edition, creating a more vibrant, diverse, and contemporary presentation.

  • Each chapter begins with a chapter outline that gives students a survey of what the chapter discusses.
  • The chapter outline is followed by a Prologue, a lively narrative that illustrates phenomena covered in the chapter.
  • Questions to consider, designed so students can apply what they have learned to everyday issues, follow each major section in the chapter.
  • Key terms and their definitions are listed in the margins on the pages where they are introduced for ease of studying.
  • New case studies provide ample opportunity for students to read about the applicable examples of psychological concepts.
  • A new Epilogue, found at the close of each chapter, sheds light on the opening Prologue and brings the content of the chapter full-circle.
  • At the end of each chapter include a chapter summary, organized by major chapter sections, helps students review what they have just read;
  • Suggestions for Further Reading highlight the newest research and most interesting concepts in the chapter

New to this Edition

Psychology remains a rapidly evolving field, and the seventh edition reflects these many exciting changes. In addition to consolidation efforts, key section reorganization, and reference updates, the following is a list of some of the major revisions to this edition, organized by chapter.

 

 

Chapter 1

New prologue on developing a conception of human psychology

New section on the scientific character of psychology relative to other disciplines

Additional information on the influences of education and therapy on the development of psychology.

New case study on the role of education and therapy as seen in the “Wild Boy of Aveyron”

New “Focus On” box develops a contrast between themes of Western psychology with Eastern approaches to behavior

New Epilogue invites readers to explore the student solution developed at the beginning of the chapter

 

Chapter 2

Additional examples for research methodology

Additional information on cross-cultural psychology

New case study on ethical decision making in research designs

Additional information on qualitative research

Additional information on single-subject research designs

New Epilogue

 

Chapter 3

Updated information on the relation between evolution and genetics

Updated information on the relation between natural selection and behavior

Updated information on selection processes as explanations of complex phenomena

New section on the role of culture in the acceptance of evolution through natural selection

New case study on HIV

Updated information on the evolution of humans, especially genetic regulatory processes

New “Focus On” section on the origins of life

Updated and simplified presentation of genetics

New information on the relation of genetics and language

Updated discussion of sociology, especially altruism

New Prologue and Epilogue on both the power and limitations of natural selection

 

Chapter 4

Updated information on the actions of drugs

New case study: Poisoning with botulinum toxin

New section on style=": 11pt; : 'Times New Roman'">Psychology remains a rapidly evolving field, and the seventh edition reflects these many exciting changes. In addition to consolidation efforts, key section reorganization, and reference updates, the following is a list of some of the major revisions to this edition, organized by chapter.

 

Chapter 1

New prologue on developing a conception of human psychology

New section on the scientific character of psychology relative to other disciplines

Additional information on the influences of education and therapy on the development of psychology.

New case study on the role of education and therapy as seen in the “Wild Boy of Aveyron”

New “Focus On” box develops a contrast between themes of Western psychology with Eastern approaches to behavior

New Epilogue invites readers to explore the student solution developed at the beginning of the chapter

 

Chapter 2

Additional examples for research methodology

Additional information on cross-cultural psychology

New case study on ethical decision making in research designs

Additional information on qualitative research

Additional information on single-subject research designs

New Epilogue

 

Chapter 3

Updated information on the relation between evolution and genetics

Updated information on the relation between natural selection and behavior

Updated information on selection processes as explanations of complex phenomena

New section on the role of culture in the acceptance of evolution through natural selection

New case study on HIV

Updated information on the evolution of humans, especially genetic regulatory processes

New “Focus On” section on the origins of life

Updated and simplified presentation of genetics

New information on the relation of genetics and language

Updated discussion of sociology, especially altruism

New Prologue and Epilogue on both the power and limitations of natural selection

 

Chapter 4

Updated information on the actions of drugs

New case study: Poisoning with botulinum toxin

New section on experience, learning, and neural plasticity

New section on neurogenesis

New case study: Effects of damage to the cerebellum

New Epilogue on the neural basis of unilateral neglect and perception of body ownership

 

Chapter 5

New Prologue and Epilogue showing that evolution alone cannot account for altruistic behavior in humans

Additional information stressing the critical differences as well as the similarities between classical (Pavlovian) and operant-conditioning

New examples relating schedules of reinforcement to everyday instances of human behavior

New case study on the tendency to give motivational interpretations to behavior that is actually due to the schedule of reinforcement

Additional information on the contribution of both learning and genetics to drug addiction

New  “Focus on” section discussing self-control and conditioned reinforcement

Additional information on the role of automatic reinforcement in language acquisition

Additional information on equivalence classes and human learning

New section on choice behavior

New section on perceptual learning

Additional information on learning and its neural mechanisms, including long-term potentiation

 

Chapter 6

New prologue: analgesia caused by a placebo

Additional information on cochlear implants and their implication for auditory perception

Additional information on functional imaging of responses to environmental sounds

Additional information on neural mechanisms of amusia: loss of musical perception

Additional information on human odor tracking

Updated information on odor receptors

New section on sensory-specific satiety

Additional information on the discovery of sensory system that responds to caresses to the skin

Updated information on the three types of pain receptors

New epilogue: natural analgesia, functional imaging studies of the placebo effect, hypnotic analgesia, and shared emotional components of pain

 

Chapter 7

Extensively updated and revised material on the visual association cortex, with emphasis on the ventral and dorsal streams in visual perception, including new case studies and new organization on:

   Ventral Stream: Perception of Form

   Ventral Stream: Perception of Color

   Dorsal Stream: Perception of Spatial Location

   Dorsal Stream: Perception of Movement

Updated information on disorders of visual perception associated with damage to specific

   brain areas–fusiform face area, extrastriate body area, and parahippocampal

   place area

Updated information on the perception of form from motion, including a new case study

New Epilogue on the fundamental conundrum of perceiving what is “out there”

 

 

Chapter 8

New prologue on the Salem Witchcraft and the reconstructive character of memory

Updated information on the biological basis of memory, with a new case study

New material on hippocampal place cells

New section on source monitoring framework

New case study on the brain regions involved in episodic memory and semantic memory

New case study on anterograde amnesia

Additional information on Schacter’s “Seven Sins” of memory

New Epilogue

 

Chapter 9

New prologue on the persistent loss of consciousness, including the cases of Terry

   Schiavo and Jan Grzebski.

New case study on how consciousness is not a general property of all parts of the brain

Additional information on consciousness as a language-dependent phenomenon

New material on the conscious control of behavior

New material on inattention blindness and brain mechanisms of attention

New “Focus On” section devoted to recent experimental demonstrations of the out-of-body

   experience

New section on sleep and learning

New section on sleep disorders, including a new case study

New case study on REM sleep behavior disorder

Updated section on the neural control of sleep

Epilogue on the use of deep brain stimulation with coma patients and the implications for

   theories of the origins of human consciousness

 

Chapter 10

New case study of Sir John Hale’s recovery from cerebral stroke

Updated section on dyslexia and related brain research

Updated section on the language acquisition device (LAD), including cross-cultural

   research findings and the concept of the Language Acquisition Support System

   (LASS)

New section on alternative theories of language acquisition

Updated section on the acquisition of adult rules of grammar

Updated “Focus On” section on communication with other species, including Alex the

   Parrot

Epilogue on new findings with bonobos and the implications

 

Chapter 11

Extended critique of the theory of multiple intelligences

New case study on the loss of practical intelligence

Updated “Focus On” section on cultural definitions of intelligence

New section on the Flynn Effect

New section on brain activity correlates of intelligence

Updated “Focus On” section on race and intelligence

Updated section on algorithms and heuristics, including Gigerenzer’s concept of the

   adaptive toolbox and its application

New Epilogue on Daniel Tammet, an autistic savant

 

Chapter 12

New Prologue on the role of early experience using the example of Romanian orphans Additional information on teratogens

New Case study elaborates opening prologue with an individual family’s story.

Additional information on the cultural differences in social attachment

Updated information on the development of gender roles

New case study of David Reimer, used to illustrate the complexity of gender identity.

Updated information on marriage and family

New Epilogue contrasts Romanian orphanage story with that of David Reimer.

 

Chapter 13

Entire chapter has been substantially reorganized and expanded to consolidate material on motivation with related information on health and lifestyle

New Prologue on the Malay latah state

Additional information on emotion, with new case studies

Updated evaluation of the James-Lange theory

New case study on aggression

New case study on Phineas Gage

New material on stress, stress management, and health

 

Chapter 14

Additional information on personality traits, including speculation of “Dark Triad” traits

New section on traits across different cultures.

New section on gender differences in personality

New section on positive psychology

Additional information on possible epigenetic effects on personality

New Prologue and Epilogue

 

Chapter 15

Additional information on the self, including a case study from Gilbert’s research on people’s

   prediction of their future behavior

Additional information on the fundamental attribution error, including Wegner’s research on

   the illusion of conscious will

Additional information on the actor-observer effect, including cross-cultural research findings

New material on self-handicapping

New material on cognitive dissonance, including findings from evolutionary psychology

   and brain-damaged patients

New material on attitudes toward racial equality from research in South Africa and from

   fMRI research

New material on the self-fulfilling prophecy

New case study on Kitty Genovese

New section on the Stanford Prison Experiment and its relevance to the Abu Ghraib

   Prison

Additional information on the “Focus On” section on the evolution of love

New Epilogue on the growing intersection between social psychology and cognitive

   Neuroscience

 

Chapter 16
Addition of the biopsychsocial perspective to the study of psychological disorders

New reference to the ISD in addition to the DSM

New material on critiques of the DSM-IV and possible directions for the DSM-V

Updated “Focus On” section on clinical v. actuarial diagnosis

New section on Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood that focuses on attention-

deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder

New case study on autistic disorder

New case study on obsessive-compulsive disorder

New case study on post-traumatic stress disorder

New case studies on culture-bound syndromes

New case study on borderline personality disorder

Reorganization of sections to reflect the DSM-IV ordering

New material on dopamine pathways in substance-related disorders

New material on the heritability of schizophrenia

New material on the neurophysiological causes of mood disorders

New section on post-traumatic stress disorder

New section on borderline personality disorder

New Epilogue on Elyn Sak’s life with schizophrenia

 

Chapter 17

New case study illustrating brief psychodynamic therapy

New case study illustrating gestalt therapy

Revised section on the evaluation of insight therapies

New material on the treatment of autistic disorder using applied behavior analysis

Additional information on community psychology

Additional information on the evaluation of family and couples theory and community

   psychology

New case study on antidepressant medications

New section on drug therapy for ADHD, including a case study

Revised “Focus On” section on the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, with emphasis on

   evidence-based approaches

New Epilogue on concerns about the extended use of drug therapy

Table of Contents

Glossary

CHAPTER 1 The Science of Psychology

CHAPTER 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology

CHAPTER 3 Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior

CHAPTER 4 Biology of Behavior

CHAPTER 5 Learning and Behavior

CHAPTER 6 Memory

CHAPTER 7 Sensation

CHAPTER 8 Perception

CHAPTER 9 Consciousness

CHAPTER 10 Language

CHAPTER 11 Intelligence and Thinking

CHAPTER 12 Life-Span Development

CHAPTER 13 Motivation, Emotions, and Health

CHAPTER 14 Social Psychology

CHAPTER 15 Personality

CHAPTER 16 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders

CHAPTER 17 The Treatment of Psychological Disorders