Thinking Socratically

Series
Pearson
Author
Sharon Schwarze / Harvey Lape  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
3
Language
English
Total pages
336
Pub.-date
November 2011
ISBN13
9780205098019
ISBN
0205098010
Related Titles



Description

Critical Thinking Skills in Everyday Context — The Socrates Model

 

Thinking Socratically is a treatment of critical thinking, rather than an informal logic textbook. It emphasizes a philosophical reflection on real issues from everyday life, in order to teach students the skills of critical thinking in a commonplace context that is easy to understand and certain to be remembered.

 

Teaching and Learning Experience

 

Improve Critical Thinking - Thinking Socratically contextualizes the presentation of critical thinking topics through easy-to-understand information, and shows, rather than just tells, students how to be critical thinkers by encouraging them to follow Socrates as a model.

 

Engage StudentsThinking Socratically exposes students to a variety of readings listed after expository material, Venn diagrams, chapter-end summaries, etc. — in order to outline important concepts and learning tools needed for useful reasoning.

 

Support Instructors - Teaching your course just got easier!  You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor’s Manual, or PowerPoint Presentation Slides.  Plus, Thinking Socratically is organized around topics for ease of assignments, and uses standard terminology to eliminate student confusion.

Features

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN EVERYDAY CONTEXT – THE SOCRATES MODEL

  • Teachable units: Organizes topics for ease of assignments. Makes it easy for instructors to use the text as a basis for their syllabus. Enables students to grasp concepts in discrete units. (ex. p. 23)
  • Expanded list of readings: Students spend more time with the 'fun' material that provides the 'hooks' for the concepts. (ex. p. 273)
  • Chapter-end summaries: Outlines the important concepts and learning goals of each chapter, so that students can check their understanding of material before moving on. (ex. p. 215)

IMPROVE CRITICAL THINKING

  • Thinking Socratically contextualizes the presentation of critical thinking topics by including readings taken from sources that include newspapers, literature, magazines, and philosophy. Based on this approach, students see that critical thinking is not an abstract academic exercise, but something that applies to all aspects of everyday life. (ex. p. 35)
  • Thinking Socratically provides students with a deeper understanding of various critical thinking skills through easy-to-understand information on background knowledge, the Web of belief, the limits of evidence, the nature of proof, and dogmatism and relativism. (ex. p. 66)
  • Thinking Socratically shows,rather than just tells, students how to be critical thinkers, and encourages them to follow modeling - with Socrates as the key model. (ex. p. 3)
  • Thinking Socratically broadens students' understanding of how humans know, provides them with insight, and encourages their reflection via the integration of philosophical puzzles of rationality. (ex. p. 43)
  • Thinking Socratically’s emphasis on the importance of rationality, as well as the limits of rational thought,helps students appreciate diverse ways of thinking and reasoning, and to have increased confidence in their own reasoning ability. (ex. p. 28)
  • Thinking Socratically explores all forms of good reasoning (from moral to scientific) so that students can see their interconnection, and helps distinguish between science and pseudoscience. (ex. p. 281)

ENGAGE STUDENTS

  • Through an expanded list of readings, students spend more time with the 'fun' material that provides the 'hooks' for the concepts
  • The placement of readings after expository material helps students to see the connections between concepts more clearly. (ex. p. 285)
  • Students are exposed to Venn diagrams as a tool for useful reasoning. (ex. p. 117)
  • Chapter-end summaries outline the important concepts and learning goals of each chapter, so that students can check their understanding of material before moving on. (ex. p. 109)

SUPPORT INSTRUCTORS

  • Teachable units – organized around topics for ease of assignments - makes it easy for you to use Thinking Socratically as a basis for your syllabus, and will enable your students to grasp concepts in discrete units.
  • Standard Terminology – e.g. “reasoning with probability” has become “inductive reasoning” – serves to eliminate student confusion when you use more familiar terms.
  • Instructor’s Manual with Tests (0205098029): For each chapter in the text, this resource provides a detailed outline, discussion questions and test questions in multiple-choice, true/ false, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer formats. For easy access, this manual is available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
  • PowerPoint Presentation Slides for Thinking Socratically 3/e (0205098045): These PowerPoint slides help you convey philosophy principles in a clear and engaging way. For easy access, they are available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.

New to this Edition

Found in this section:
1. Overview of Changes
2. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes

 

1. Overview of changes

 

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN EVERYDAY CONTEXT – THE SOCRATES MODEL

The new edition of Thinking Socratically provides:

  • Eight new sections.
  • Updated content: e.g. longer readings were trimmed and outdated readings were removed. (ex. p. 88)
  • New and additional exercises, especially for deductive reasoning. (ex. p. 97)

IMPROVE CRITICAL THINKING

The new edition of Thinking Socratically provides:

  • Increased number of informal fallacies so that students may recognize faulty reasoning in their own, and others', thinking. (ex. p. 219)
  • A prominent and central concept of “the web of belief” connected to consensus and personal belief. (ex. p. 66)


ENGAGE STUDENTS

The new edition of Thinking Socratically provides:

  • Clearer explanations of traces and patterns in inductive reasoning. (ex. p. 248)
  • Greater emphasis on the power of language to influence everyday thought and critical thinking. (ex. p. 32)
  • Updated readings to reflect recent issues and events such as racial profiling and the 2010 Yale campus murder. (ex. p. 134)


SUPPORT INSTRUCTORS

  • New! An expanded treatment of deductive reasoning correlates to increased emphasis placed on the subject, and assures student comprehension.
  • New! Create a Custom Text: For enrollments of at least 25, create your own textbook by combining chapters from best-selling Pearson textbooks and/or reading selections in the sequence you want.  To begin building your custom text, visit www.pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom editor to create your ideal text—publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your Pearson Publisher’s Representative to get started


2. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes

 

Chapter 1   Why Be Rational?

  • Added! Introduction of Critical Thinking and the Importance of Open Dialogue

Chapter 2   Language.

  • New! Reading ‘9/11 Rumors That Harden into Conventional Wisdom by Michael Slackman
  • New! Reading ‘The Salmon of Doubt’ by Douglas Adams
  • Added! Central concept of web of belief placed more prominently and connected to consensus and personal belief
  • New! Greater emphasis on the power of language to influence everyday thought and critical thinking

Chapter 3   Knowledge and Certainty.

  • Added! Material on belief
  • New! Reading ‘Ideas & Trends; For Air Crash Detectives, Seeing Isn’t Believing’ by Matthew L. Wald
  • New! Reading ‘President Tom’s Cabin’ by Jill Lepore
  • Replaced: Reading ‘Double Identity’ by Michael Dobbs

Chapter 4   Arguments and Explanations.

  • Added! Explanation and exercises on reasoning

Chapter 5   Deductive Links.

  • Added! New exercises on deductive reasoning
  • New! Explanation of analyzing a deductive argument

Chapter 6   Deductive Standards.

  • Updated! Material on deductive argument forms

Chapter 7   Supporting Our Claims.

  • Added! Clearer explanation of traces and patterns of inductive reasoning
  • New! Reading ‘Report on Yale Murder Outlines Suspicions’ by James Barron and Alison Leigh Cowan and ‘Trial by Fire: Did Texas Execute An Innocent Man?’ by David Grann
  • Replaced: Reading ‘The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier’ by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Chapter 8   Standards of Inductive Reasoning.

  • Added! Explanation of three basic forms of inductive reasoning
  • New! Reading ‘Troublemakers’ by Malcolm Gladwell
  • Removed: Reading ‘Thy Countenance Shakes Spears’ by Mark K. Anderson

Chapter 9   Fallacies.

  • New! Reading ‘Why Obama is Flip-Flopping’ by Glenn Beck
  • Removed: Reading ‘Love is a Fallacy’ by Max Shulman

Chapter 10   Scientific Reasoning.

  • New! Reading ‘The Sex Life of the Whiptailed Lizard’ by Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch

Chapter 11   Pseudoscience.

  • New! Updated exercises and examples

Chapter 12   The Nature of Morality.

  • New! Reading ‘Utilitarianism’ by Jeremy Bentham
  • Added! Expanded section on Objectivism and Subjectivism

Chapter 13   Reasoning About Good and Bad.

  • New! Updated exercises and examples

Chapter 14   Moral Dialogue.

  • New! Updated exercises and examples

Chapter 15   Reason and Commitment.

  • New! Updated exercises and examples

Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents

1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Preface

Acknowledgments

 

Part I Connections

Chapter 1 Why be a Critical Thinker?

Chapter 2 Language

Chapter 3 Knowledge and Certainty

Chapter 4 Arguments and Explanations

 

Part II Deductive Reasoning

Chapter 5 Deductive Links

Chapter 6 Deductive Argument Forms

 

Part III Inductive Reasoning

Chapter 7 Supporting Our Claims 

Chapter 8 Standards of Inductive Reasoning 

Chapter 9 Fallacies

Chapter 10 Scientific Reasoning

Chapter 11 Pseudoscience

 

Part IV Reasoning About Values 

Chapter 12 The Nature of Morality

Chapter 13 Reasoning about Good and Bad 

Chapter 14 Moral Dialogue

Chapter 15 Reason and Commitment

 

Index

 

2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Preface

Acknowledgments

 

Part I Connections

Chapter 1: Why be a Critical Thinker?

Critical Thinking and the Importance of Open Dialogue

What Is Critical Thinking?

Euthyphro

Plato

Study Questions

Reason and Culture

Why the Geese Shrieked

Isaac Bashevis Singer

The Shaman and the Dying Scientist: A Brazilian Tale

Alan Riding

Study Questions

The Limits of Reason

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 2: Language

The Priority of Language

Language and the World

The Corner of the Eye

Lewis Thomas

Eight Little Piggies

Stephen Jay Gould

Study Questions

Words, Statements, and Beliefs

Warranted Statements

Making of Americans

Gertrude Stein

Study Questions

Factual Statements

Web of Belief

9/11 Rumors That Harden into Conventional Wisdom

Michael Slackman

Cookies

Douglas Adams

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 3: Knowledge and Certainty

Belief and Knowledge

Knowledge and Certainty

Meditations on First Philosophy in Which the Existence of God and the Distinction of the Soul from the Body Are Demonstrated  

René Descartes

A Brief History of Time

Stephen Hawking

Study Questions 

Consensus and the Web of Belief

Ideas & Trends; For Air Crash Detectives, Seeing Isn't Believing  

Matthew L. Wald

President Tom's Cabin

Jill Lepore

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 4: Arguments and Explanations

Arguments: Premises and Conclusions

Implicit Premises and Conclusions

Arguments: Standard Form

Logical Warranting

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Factual Warranting

The Decameron: Michele Scalza

Giovanni Boccaccio

The Decameron: Melchizedek

Giovanni Boccaccio

Study Questions

Explanations

The Day-Care Deaths: A Mystery

Linda Herskowitz

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Part II Deductive Reasoning

Chapter 5: Deductive Links

Reasoning with Necessity

Dissenting Opinion in Gregg v. Georgia

Thurgood Marshall

Study Questions

Analyzing a Deductive Argument

Validity and Logical Implication

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 6: Deductive Argument Forms

Logic

Some Common Valid Argument Forms

Anselm's Ontological Argument

Norman Malcolm

Study Questions

Anselm's Ontological Argument

Summary

Exercises

 

Part III Inductive Reasoning

Chapter 7: Supporting Our Claims 

Evidence: Traces and Patterns

Report on Yale Murder Outlines Suspicions

James Barron And Alison Leigh Cowan

Trial By Fire: Did Texas Execute an Innocent Man?

David Grann

Study Questions

Confirmation and Proof: Webs of Belief  

The William Bradfield Case: Murder on the Main Line

Mike Mallowe

Coded Bradfield Note: 'My Danger Conspiracy'

Emilie Lounsberry

The Jury: Convinced or Confused?

Emilie Lounsberry and Henry Goldman

Bradfield, on Stand, Denies Any Role

Emilie Lounsberry

Bradfield and Women

Henry Goldman

Study Questions

Summary Exercises

 

Chapter 8: Standards of Inductive Reasoning 

Three Basic Forms

Generalizations

The Literary Digest Predicts Victory by Landon, 1936

“Digest” Poll Machinery Speeding Up

Landon 1,293,669; Roosevelt, 972,897

What Went Wrong with the Polls?

Study Questions

Analogies

Troublemakers: What Pitt Bulls Can Teach Us about Profiling

Malcolm Gladwell

Study Questions

Causal Claims

So, Smoking Causes Cancer: This Is News?

Denise Grady

Renewing Philosophy

Hilary Putnam

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 9: Fallacies

The Nature of Fallacies

Fallacies of Irrelevance

Lost Genius

Russell Baker

Study Questions

Fallacies of Faulty Generalization

Fallacies of Emotional Manipulation

Bachmann Finds an Issue With HPV Debate

Trip Gabriel

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 10: Scientific Reasoning

Science and Good Reasoning

Copernicus and Kepler

The Sex Life of the Whiptail Lizard

Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch

Study Questions

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 11: Pseudoscience

Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience

Fliess, Freud, and Biorhythm

Martin Gardner

Study Questions

Summary

Exercises

 

Part IV Reasoning About Values  

Chapter 12: The Nature of Morality

Supporting Moral Claims

Chapter I: Of the Principle of Utility

Jeremy Bentham

Study Questions

Objectivism and Subjectivism

The Brothers Karamazov

Fyodor Dostoevsky

Study Questions 

Morality and Reasoning

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 13: Reasoning about Good and Bad 

Making Moral Decisions

Reasonable Objectivism and Reasonable Subjectivism

Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals

Immanuel Kant

Existentialism is a Humanism

Jean-Paul Sartre

Study Questions

Kant

Sartre

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 14: Moral Dialogue

Dogmatism and Relativism

Euthyphro as Dogmatist

Plato

Classroom Scene

Study Questions

Moderation as Key

Summary

Exercises

 

Chapter 15: Reason and Commitment

Open Rational Dialogue

Keynote Speech May 18 at Simpson College's 1996 Commencement

Jane Smiley

Study Questions

 

Index

 

 

 

Author

Dear Colleagues,

 

When we first started teaching critical thinking over twenty-five years ago the available textbooks fell into two camps: some were simplified "introduction to logic" texts, while others were little more than rhetoric handbooks fortified with a section on informal fallacies. The first group offered models for critical thinking but provided no material to think critically about. The second analyzed devious ways of persuasion used in everything from advertising to politics. We soon began constructing our own materials for critical thinking, using the stories, news events, and issues that our students encountered in their daily lives. We believed then, and we believe now, that students need to learn critical thinking skills in a variety of contexts and from actual instances, not from concocted textbook examples.

 

Our approach to critical thinking also has a strong philosophical underpinning. This helps students understand how their own beliefs are formed and how they fit together into webs of belief and ultimately into a view of the world which is shaped by their experience and which shapes their experience. Having this philosophical understanding helps them to monitor their own critical thinking in a new way, and it helps them to understand why we sometimes have arguments with each other. All of this points to our definition of critical thinking which is open rational dialogue with our friends - and with ourselves.

 

We include the usual topics found in critical thinking texts such as deductive and inductive reasoning and the fallacies, but we also present critical thinking as anchored in a much broader philosophical context. Thus we include excerpts from Plato, Descartes, and Kant, among others. Moreover, we show how critical thinking applies in such diverse disciplines as history and science. Finally, we conclude Thinking Socratically with a whole section on ethics because, like Socrates, we think critical thinking can help people be better people, not just better critical thinkers.

 

We have found that students at every level enjoy and benefit from Thinking Socratically. It has been used around the country by students from the undergraduate to the graduate level.

Even teachers in K-12 programs have used earlier editions to teach themselves how to teach critical thinking to their pre-college students. We hope that you will consider using this text if you are not using it already.

 

Please do not hesitate to contact us at Cabrini College with your comments, questions, and suggestions. We began this text with the desire to make our students better critical thinkers and that is still our goal - to make students everywhere more able to use critical thinking skills in their everyday lives. Our email addresses are sschwarze@cabrini.eud and hlape3@hotmail.com.

 

Sincerely,

 

Sharon Schwarze and Harvey Lape

 

Cabrini College


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