Cognition: Pearson New International Edition

Series
Pearson
Author
Mark H. Ashcraft / Gabriel A. Radvansky  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
5
Language
English
Total pages
600
Pub.-date
July 2013
ISBN13
9781292021478
ISBN
1292021470
Related Titles


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9781292021478
Cognition: Pearson New International Edition
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Description

For undergraduate level courses in Cognition and Theories of Learning.

The psychology of human memory and cognition is fascinating, dealing with questions and ideas that are inherently interesting, such as how we think, reason, remember, and use language. Using a first person narrative, posing direct questions to the reader, and balancing classic research with cutting edge topics, the author draws in the reader and conveys the excitement of the field.

Reflecting the increasing use of new technologies to study memory and cognition, Ashcraft and the new co-author, Gabriel Radvansky, continue to integrate sections on neurosciences within individual chapter topics.

Features

Create a Custom Text: For enrollments of at least 25, create your own textbook by combining chapters from best-selling Pearson textbooks and/or reading selections in the sequence you want.  To begin building your custom text, visit www.pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom editor to create your ideal text–publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your Pearson Publisher’s Representative to get started.

 

 Provide student with the most up-to-date research and material:

  • Thoroughly revised and updated throughout—i.e., false memory research; working memory and individual differences; online investigations of comprehension and reading; and new challenges to the classic research on heuristics in decision making— this offers students current and additional material on important topics and developments central to the field.
  • Over 300 new reference citations since the 2002 edition to ensure coverage of cutting edge topics.

Provide students with foundation to be successful in studying cognition:

  • Sections on neurocognition are integrated within the individual chapter topics. This shows students how integral the neurosciences are to cognitive science.
  • Background information on neurons and the brain (chapter 2) prepares students—without formal coursework on the biological basis of cognition– for the neurocognitive evidence they will encounter throughout the book.
  • Accessible writing style draws students into the material so that they can absorb and retain material more easily.
  • Balance of classic research and current topics presents students with a manageable mix of material that encourages them to read and remember material.
  • In-depth coverage of treated topics provides students with thorough coverage of the most important subject areas.

 Pedagogical Features:

  • Prove It boxes give students a demonstration project that illustrates the points made.
  • Critical terms are highlighted to help students master the terminology.
  • Section Summaries enable students to check their understanding and retention of concepts after each major chapter section.

New to this Edition

  • Coverage of issues relating to embodied cognition
  • Continued increase in emphasis on neurological measures and findings
  • Inclusion of a discussion of trans-saccadic memory
  • Updated coverage of attention capture
  • Inclusion of issues of negative priming and attentional inhibition
  • Explanations of choking under pressure
  • Expanded and updated coverage of working memory issues
  • Coverage of metamemory issues
  • Increased coverage of issues related to emotion and cognition
  • Coverage of issues of survival and memory
  • Reorganization and updating of research on schemas
  • Updated and expanded coverage of human categorization
  • Expanded coverage of source monitoring and prospective memory
  • Expanded coverage of false memory phenomena
  • Updated coverage of autobiographical memory
  • Inclusion of discussions of the motor theory of speech perception
  • Inclusion of research on language comprehension and situation models
  • Inclusion of research on gesture in language comprehension
  • Increased focus on fast and frugal heuristics
  • Deeper coverage of the use of analogy in problem solving
  • Expanded  coverage of the role of neuroscience in understanding insight problem solving
  • Many more Prove It boxes

Table of Contents

Glossary

 

1. Cognitive Psychology : An Introduction

 

Thinking About Thinking

 

Memory and Cognition Defined

 

An Introductory History of Cognitive Psychology

 

 Anticipations of Psychology

 Early Psychology

 Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism

 Dissatifaction with Behaviorism: The Winds of Change

 

Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing

 

 The New Direction

  The Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology

 

2. The Cognitive Science Approach

 

 Guiding Principles

 Themes

 

Measuring Information Processes

 

 Getting Started

 Time and Accuracy Measures

 Guiding Analogies

 

The Information-Processing Approach

 

 The Standard Theory

 A Process Model

 The Strict Information Processing Approach

 Some Difficulties

 

The Modern Cognitive Approach: Cognitive Science

 

 Updating the Standard Theory

 Fixing the Narrowness

 

Neurocognition: The Brain and Cognition Together

 

 Basic Neurology

 Brain Anatomy

 Principles of Functioning

 Split Brain Research and Lateralization

 Methods of Investigation

 

Neural Net Models: Connectionism

 

3. Perception and Pattern Recognition

 

Visual Perception

 

 Gathering Visual Information

 Visual Sensory Memory

 The Early parts of a Fixation

  A Summary for Visual Sensory Memory

Trans-saccadic Memory

 

 

Pattern Recognition: Written Language

 

Gestalt Grouping Principles

The Template Approach

Visual Feature Detection

Beyond Features: Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition

Connectionist Modeling

 

 

Object Recognition and Agnosia

 

 Recognition by Components

 Agnosia

 Implications for Cognitive Science

 

Auditory Perception

 

 Auditory Sensory Memory

 Auditory Pattern Recognition

 

4. Attention

 

 Multiple Meaning of Attention

 Basics of Attention

 

Basic Input Attentional Processes

 

 Alertness and Arousal

 Orienting Response and Attention Capture

 Spotlight Attention and Visual Search

 Contrasting Input and Controlled Attention

Hemineglect: An Attention Deficit

 

Controlled, Voluntary Attention

 

 Selective Attention and the Cocktail Party Effect

 Selection Models

 

Attention as a Mental Resource

 

 Automatic and Conscious Processing Theories

 A Synthesis for Attention and Automaticity

 Disadvantages of Automaticity

 

 

5. Short-Term Working Memory

 

  

Short-Term Memory: A Limited Capacity Bottleneck

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two

Forgetting from Short-Term Memory

 

Short-Term Memory Retrieval

Serial Position Effects

Short-Term Memory Scanning: The Sternberg Task

 

 

 

Working Memory

 

The Components of Working Memory

The Central Executive

The Phonological Loop

The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

The Episodic Buffer

 

Assessing Working Memory

The Dual Task Method

Working Memory Span

 

The Role of Working Memory in Cognition

Working Memory and Attention

Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

Working Memory and Reasoning

Sometimes Small Working Memory Spans are Better

 

 

 

 

6. Learning and Remembering

 

Preliminary Issues

 

 Mnemonic Devices

 The Ebbinghaus Tradition of Memory Research

 Metamemory

 

Storing Information in Episodic Memory

 

 Rehearsal

 Frequency of Rehearsal

 Two Kinds of Rehearsal

 Depth of Processing

 Challenges to Depth of Processing

 Generation and Enactment

Organization in Storage

Imagery

Emotion and Survival Value

Context and Encoding Specificity

 

Retrieving Episodic Information

 

 Decay

 Interference

 Retrieval Failure

 Retrieval Cues

 

Amnesia and Implicit Memory

 

 Dissociation of Episodic and Semantic Memory

 Anterograde Amnesia

 Implicit and Explicit Memory

 

7. Knowing

 

Semantic Memory

 

 The Collins and Quillian ( and Loftus) Model

 Smith's Feature Comparison Model

 Empirical Tests of Semantic Memory Models

 Semantic Relatedness

 

Priming in Semantic Memory

 

 Nuts and Bolts of Priming Tasks

 Empirical Demonstrations of Priming

 Priming in Other Tasks

 Automatic and Controlled Priming

Priming Is an Implicit Process

 

Schemata and Scripts

Bartlett’s Research

Schemata

Scripts

Evidence of Scripts

 

 

 

<  Context, Connectionism, and the Brain

Connectionism

Connectionism and the Brain

 

 

8. Using Knowledge in the Real World

 

 The Seven Sins of Memory

 

Facts About the World

The Nature of Propositions

Rules for Deriving Propositions

Are Propositions Real?

 

Situation Models and Embodied Cognition

Levels of Representation

Remembering Facts

 

 

Metamemory

Source Monitoring

Prospective Memory

Knowing What You Know

 

False Memories, Eyewitness Memory. and "Forgotten Memories"

 

 False Memories

 Integration

 Leading Questions and Memory Distortion

 The Misinformation Effect

 Source Misattribution and Misinformation Acceptance

 Stronger Memory Distortion Effects

 Repressed and Recovered Memories

 

Autobiographical Memories

 

 The Bahrick Work

 Phenomena of Autobiographical Memory

 The Irony of Memory

 

9. Language

 

Linguistic Universals and Functions

 

 Defining Language

Language Universals

 Animal Communication

 Levels of Analysis, a Critical Distinction, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

 

Phonology: The Sounds of Language

 

 Sounds in Isolation

 Combining Phonemes into Words

Embodiment in Speech Perception

 Speech Perception and Context

 A Final Puzzle

 

Syntax: The Ordering of Words and Phrases

 

 Chomsky's Transformational Grammar

 Limitations of the Transformational Grammar Approach

 The Cognitive Role of Syntax

 

Lexical and Semantic Factors: The Meaning in Language

 

 Morphemes

 The Lexical Representation

 Case Grammar

 Interaction of Syntax and Semantics

 Evidence for the Semantic Grammar Approaches

  

Brain and Language

 

Language in the Intact Brain

 Aphasia

 Generalizing from Aphasia

 

 

10. Comprehension: Written and Spoken Language

 

Getting Started: An Overview

 

 Conceptual and Rule Knowledge

 Traditional Comprehension Research

 Online Comprehension Tasks

 Metacomprehension

 Comprehension as Mental Structure Building

 Levels of Comprehension

 

 Reading

 

 Gaze Duration

 Basic Online Reading Effects

 A Model of Reading

 Summary

 

Reference, Situation Models, and Events

Reference

Situation Models

Events

 

 

  Conversation and Gesture

 

 The Structure of Conversations

 Cognitive Conversational Characteristics

 Empirical Effects in Conversation

 Gesture

 

11. Problem Solving

 

 The Status of Problem-Solving Area

 

Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving

 

 Early Gestalt Research

 Difficulties in Problem Solving

 

Insight and Analogy

 

 Insight

 Analogy

 Neurocognition in Analogy and Insight

 

Basics of Problem Solving

 

 Characteristics of Problem Solving

 A Vocabulary of Problem Solving

 

Means-End Analysis: A Fundamental Heuristic

 

 The Basics of Means-End Analysis

 The Tower of Hanoi

 General Problem Solver

 

Improving Your Problem Solving

 

 Increase Your Domain Knowledge

 Automate Some Components of the Problem-Solving Solution

 Follow a Systematic Plan

 Draw Inferences

 Develop Subgoals

 Work Backward

 Search for Contradictions

 Search for Relations Among Problems

 Find  a Different Problem Representation

Stay Calm

 If All Else Fails, Try Practice

 

12. Decisions, Judgments, and Reasoning

 

Formal Logic and Reasoning

 

 Syllogisms

 Conditional Reasoning: If P Then Q

 Hypothesis Testing

 

Decisions

 

 Decisions About Physical Differences

 Decisions About Symbolic Differences

 Decisions About Geographic Distances

 

Decisions and Reasoning Under Uncertainty

 

 Algorithms and Heuristics

 Heuristics, Biases, and Fallacies

 The Representativeness Heuristic

 The Availability Heuristics

 The Simulation Heuristics

 The Undoing Heuristics: Counterfactual Reasoning

 Adaptive Thinking and " Fast, Frugal" Heuristics

 The Ongoing Debate

 

Limitations in Reasoning

 

 Limited Domain Knowledge

 Limitations in Processing Resources

 

Appendix: Algorithms for Coin Tosses and Hospital Births

Coin Tosses

Hospital Births 

 

  

References

Photo Credits

Name Index

Subjet Index