Invitation to Psychology, Global Edition

Series
Pearson
Author
Carole Wade / Carol Tavris  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
6
Language
English
Total pages
624
Pub.-date
August 2014
ISBN13
9781292056562
ISBN
1292056568
Related Titles


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Description

Emphasizes critical thinking, culture, and gender

 

Invitation to Psychology, 6/e, shows students why scientific and critical thinking is so important in the decisions they make. In clear, lively, warm prose, this edition continues the title’s integration of gender, culture, and ethnicity. By the end, readers will learn how to interpret research and to address and resolve controversies.

 

 

 

Features

  • Explores Roles of Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity in Psychology – Research on gender, culture, and ethnicity is not limited to a specific chapter; it is integrated into the entire text. Get Involved Exercises, quick demonstrations, relate course material to students’ own lives.
  • Supports Learning and Comprehension – The 6th edition uses the Read-Recite-Review approach (3R), which is based on empirical research demonstrating its benefits for learning and memory. In a nutshell: students read a section, close the book, and actually recite out loud as much as they can about what they have just learned. They then reread and review that section to make sure they understood it correctly.

New to this Edition

Chapter 1:

  • Replaced three of the “Psychology in the News” stories with more recent ones: Boston’s weight-loss campaign, Lance Armstrong’s doping admission, and the Israeli-Hamas conflict.

  • Deleted, for space reasons, the Taylor & Kowalski study of how an introductory psychology course affects students’ performance on a psychological information questionnaire. This would make a good study to mention in an introductory lecture.

  • Kept psychoanalysis in “Psychology’s Past,” but deleted it from the list of major perspectives in the “Psychology’s Present” section, which now focuses strictly on psychological science. Psychoanalysis is still discussed in the personality and psychotherapy chapters.

  • Introduced a new section, “Using Psychology to Study Psychology,” which tells students about four strategies that are central to learning and remembering the material in their course. These include the 3R technique (Read, Recite, Review), which is then reinforced in all of the book’s quizzes.

  • In the section on critical thinking, added research on the uncritical acceptance of material turned up by Internet searches. Students tend to assume the topmost hit is the most accurate, and are not always able to detect hidden agendas in what they read online.

  • In “Case Studies,” added a paragraph on the famous story of Sybil, who, it turns out, was never a multiple personality and who tailored her symptoms to please her psychiatrist. This is a terrific cautionary tale about the uncritical acceptance of sensational stories in the media.

  • In “Descriptive Studies,” expanded the discussion of the disproportionate number of studies based on “WEIRDos”–students from Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic societies–and noted the use of technology to address this issue (e.g., use of Amazon’s Mechanical Turk site to recruit study participants from throughout the world). To make room, deleted the AMA study that used an unrepresentative sample of college women to draw conclusions about behavior during spring break.

  • In the correlation section, changed the graphs so that they all pertain to a hypothetical study of performance on a psychology exam.

  • In the discussion of control groups, deleted the example of research on self-esteem in girls; it is discussed in another chapter.

  • In the section on statistics, sharpened the discussion of problems with significance tests and p values (adding the latter term), added an explanation of confidence intervals; and modified the definitions of effect size and meta-analysis. Note that the appendix has been dropped from the printed book but can be accessed online.

  • Replaced the “Taking Psychology with You” feature on “What Psychology Can Do for You” with one on using critical thinking to recognize misleading or deceptive statistics. We think this will be more useful to students.

Chapter 2:

  • Changed the opening story from Madonna to Steve Jobs, a complex “personality” if ever there was one.

  • In evaluation of the psychodynamic perspective, added a 2012 study suggesting that homophobia may sometimes be an attempt to deal with unconscious but threatening homosexual feelings.

  • Updated the research on the Big Five, discussing how experience shapes these traits over the life span. Added a study of an enormous cross-sectional sample, involving more than 1,200,000 people ages 10 to 65, which revealed that whereas adult trends are overwhelmingly in the direction of greater maturity and adjustment, maturity actually plummets between late childhood and adolescence.

  • Under “Genetic Influences,” explained more about genes and especially epigenetics. Epigenetic changes help explain why one identical twin might get a disease and the other not, and why identical twins, and even cloned animals living in exactly the same environment, may differ in appearance and behavior. Added research showing that prenatal events, such as the pregnant mother’s illness, may modify the genetic expression in only one twin. Introduced the term and emphasized the importance of gene-environment interactions in personality traits.

  • In the discussion of individualism and collectivism, deleted the point about how people in these two kinds of cultures tend to develop different cognitive styles.

  • In that section, added cross-cultural research designed to separate universal from culture-specific aspects of personality: a study of Chinese (in Hong Kong and mainland China) and South Africans, in which researchers administered Western personality inventories but also developed indigenous measures to capture cultural variations.

Chapter 3:

  • The chapter now begins with the case of teenagers Evan Miller and Colby Smith, who were convicted of murder and sentenced to life without parole; their case went to the Supreme Court and raises the question of adolescent brains as “works in progress.”

  • Dropped the names of the prenatal stages (germinal, embryonic, fetal), while keeping the terms zygote, embryo, and fetus.

  • Added the prenatal risks of pollution, maternal stress (including a study of the children of pregnant women who developed PTSD after the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centers), and antidepressants.

  • Revised and reorganized the language development section—starting with the debate over the origins of language (calling the section “Language: Built in or Learned?”) and then moving to developmental landmarks as children mature. The former discussion now mentions the criticisms of Chomsky’s view in light of recent research; we deleted Chomsky’s deep structure/surface structure distinction but kept the notion of a universal grammar.

  • Updated the section on Piaget, adding a fascinating experiment that illustrates how researchers measure the emergence of a theory of mind in young children.

  • In the section on moral development, reduced discussion of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning to just a mention of the approach, because this theory has been superseded by new research, does not relate to actual moral behavior, and does not involve what is now seen as a factor that is far more important in predicting conscientious, moral behavior—delay of gratification and the ability to regulate one’s emotions.

  • In coverage of gene-environment interactions affecting moral development, added discussion of “orchid” and “dandelion” children; dandelions survive in almost any environment, but “orchids” are highly sensitive to their environments and will wilt without careful nurturing.

  • In the section on self-control and conscience, added Mischel’s work on delay of gratification (the “marshmallow test”) and its long-reaching effects, and a discussion of where the ability to delay gratification comes from.

  • Updated the discussion of gender identity, transgendered and transsexual individuals and intersex conditions. Because of the stories in the news of very young children who feel they are the “wrong sex,” we added Zucker’s longitudinal research showing that only a small minority of such children maintains that transgender identity as adults. Also added a study showing that the rigidity of today’s gender schemas (blue/pink, “boys’ toys” vs. “girls’ toys”) is relatively recent, a result of marketing designed to expand sales.

  • At the start of the section on adolescence, added adrenarche, a stage of middle childhood (ages 6 to 12) in which the adrenal glands start pumping out hormones that affect brain development. Added recent findings that the onset of puberty is declining in both sexes.

  • Updated the statistics on teenagers; sexual activity and the teenage birth rate have declined significantly. Also added new research on brain development in adolescence.

  • Updated the information about “emerging adulthood” as a phase of life: In 2011, because of a difficult economy, nearly 30 percent of adults ages 18 to 34 were living at home with their parents, the highest number in 70 years.

  • Updated the predicted numbers of future centenarians and added a study showing that older adults are often able to compensate for age-related declines by recruiting parts of the brain that are not commonly activated when young people do the same tasks.

  • “Psychology in the News, Revisited” reports the Supreme Court’s ruling that laws requiring teenagers convicted of murder to be sentenced to die in prison violate the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment. The section discusses how psychological science informs social policy about teen offenders.

Chapter 4:

  • This chapter has undergone significant revision and updating.
  • The chapter now begins with a timely news story on chronic traumatic encephalopathy in football players.

  • Changed neuropsychologist to the more accurate neuroscientist throughout. The former term is narrower, describing people who assess brain damage.

  • In the introduction, replaced the discussion of minimally vegetative states with recent examples of paralyzed patients who have learned to control a computer cursor or a robotic arm with just their thoughts. Quite amazing!

  • Updated information on glia to reflect the increasing understanding that these cells have many crucial jobs. Also corrected the common belief that there are 100 billion neurons and ten times as many glia; recent work indicates that in a male brain there are actually about 171 billion cells overall, about evenly divided between neurons and glia.

  • Changed the heading “Neurons in the News” to “Neurogenesis: The Birth of Neurons,” and updated research in this section, especially on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Deleted the Feng et al. and Vierbuchen et al. studies and replaced them with a 2012 study in which paralyzed mice regained the ability to walk after being injected with stem cells from human wisdom teeth. (However, we still note that technical hurdles remain to be overcome in treating human patients.)

  • Added a little more on the electrical and chemical changes involved in the action potential, although we still don’t go into great detail because we believe that other material is more relevant in an introductory psychology course.

  • Changed the previous heading “The Plastic Brain” to “The Flexible Brain” and moved the section to the end of the chapter.

  • Reorganized “Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System.” Added a new section on neuromodulators, which follows the hormone discussion and covers endorphins and (briefly) the serotonin transporter. Also divided the list of neurotransmitters into those that have regional effects and those that are distributed throughout the brain.

  • Revised and reorganized the section “Mapping the Brain,” adding transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and differentiating MRI from fMRI more clearly. Also updated the “Controversies and Cautions” section on the need to think critically about questionable methodological and statistical procedures in brain-scan studies, as well as media hype about the results. Includes the now-famous study in which an fMRI of a dead salmon seemed to reveal what the fish was “thinking.”

  • Updated the description of the amygdala to include how its activation is affected by a person’s current psychological state and even core personality traits. Also slightly modified the description of the hippocampus.

  • Deleted the illustration of the limbic system because, as we note in the text, that term is increasingly out of fashion. Structures outside of this area are also involved in emotion.

  • At the end of the split-brain section, deleted the point about right hemisphere processing of fear and sadness (this point is still in the emotion chapter) and instead added examples of how the two hemispheres cooperate in visual and speech perception.

  • Deleted the entire section “Where is the Self?” because suggested answers are still so speculative. However, this issue might make a good lecture topic.

  • As mentioned, incorporated material on plasticity into a new section, “The Flexible Brain.” Deleted the discussion of critical/sensitive periods (covered in the sensation and perception chapter). Also deleted the point about the increase in number of dendritic spines, a detail that we decided wasn’t necessary. Added some material to the discussion of people who have been blind or deaf from birth or early childhood.

  • Also made the discussion of male-female brain differences part of “The Flexible Brain” section. Added more evidence on sex differences and deleted some older research. However, we continue to caution about the need to think critically about the implications of these findings, and have added two points: that supposed emotional or behavioral differences (e.g., in empathy) can fade depend on the specific situation, and that many results have failed to replicate, most notably the finding that men’s brains are less lateralized than women’s (e.g., the once-famous 1995 Shaywitz et al. finding).

  • In the “Taking Psychology with You” on cosmetic neurology, deleted the discussion of drugs to erase memories (not in the offing) and added predictions being made by some neuroscientists about the use of electrical brain stimulation to enhance cognition. We caution students to think critically about such forecasts.

Chapter 5:

  • The chapter now begins with a news story about the legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado and Washington State.

  • Deleted the paragraph on “biorhythm charts”; they’re no longer as popular as they once were.

  • Added a finding that testosterone is seasonal in both sexes, peaking in the autumn and dipping in the spring.

  • In the discussion of circadian rhythms, deleted the study of people put on an artificial 28-hour day, for space reasons. Replaced the 2004 Buscemi review of melatonin research with a more recent review of methods for helping shift workers and travelers who cross time zones adjust; no method produces reliable result yet.

  • Deleted the Kohsaka et al. study of diet’s effect on circadian rhythms in mice and the Archer et al. study of larks and night owls, but added more recent studies of chronotypes and introduced that term. Added the finding that adolescents are more likely than children and adults to be “owlish,” which is why typical school schedules can be hard on them.

  • Deleted estimates of the incidence of seasonal affective disorder.

  • Reorganized and updated the discussion of PMS, adding the point that no biochemical or physiological marker has ever been shown to reliably distinguish women who report the emotional symptoms of PMS from those that do not.

  • Added a bit more detail on narcolepsy, including its possible causes.

  • In the discussion of sleep’s influence on memory consolidation, added that neurons activated during an experience may be reactivated during sleep. Deleted the studies of consolidation of emotional memories (sleep seems to strengthen many kinds of memories) but retained the graph from the Payne et al. study of emotionally negative memories. Clarified that both slow-wave and REM sleep are probably important for consolidation.

  • Shortened the description of Freud’s view of dreams (e.g., deleted manifest and latent content) because of the problems validating the psychoanalytic theory empirically.

  • Added the finding that brain activity during night dreaming is similar to that during daydreaming.

  • In the discussion of hypnosis, clarified the approach taken by dissociation theories and how it differs from the sociocognitive approach.

  • Added brain-scan research with hypnotized people, specifically a PET study in which highly hypnotizable people were able to visually “drain” color from drawings of colored rectangles or see color when the rectangles were shown in gray. But the implications for theories of hypnosis are not obvious, because highly suggestible people can hallucinate color even without being hypnotized.

  • Updated the discussion of drugs and their effects, adding (briefly) the effects of depressants on GABA, of opiates on dopamine, and of alcohol on GABA. Also added research on the therapeutic use of LSD and psilocybin to reduce anxiety and despair in patients facing death.

  • In “Taking Psychology with You,” on improving sleep, we added a point about keeping the room dark prior to sleeping—important in the age of smartphones and tablets. In a 2013 study, use of a tablet for two hours caused melatonin levels to fall.

Chapter 6:

  • The chapter now begins with a news story about a UFO conference and recent reports of UFO sightings.

  • Modified the description of difference thresholds, using a better example and explicitly naming Ernst Weber.

  • Added a study of inattentional blindness in people who talk on their cell phones while walking.

  • Updated and tightened up the discussion of brain cells specialized for face recognition (we don’t call them a “module” anymore, as that’s a disputed designation); added that a cortical area near the hippocampus reacts strongly to places and a region in the occipital cortex reacts more strongly to bodies and body parts than to faces.

  • Deleted the paragraph on psychological influences on distance perception (the Proffitt studies); these findings are now widely understood to be influenced by expectancy effects and experimenter demand. But later in the chapter, we retained the research by Balcetis and Dunning on “wishful seeing,” which makes a related point about the influence of emotions and needs on perception.

  • Added a mention of echolocation: how some blind people are able to navigate accurately in the world by harnessing the relation between distance and sound.

  • Updated the findings on taste preferences that begin in the womb or during infancy.

  • In the section on smell, deleted the Dutch study of how a scent could activate the mental concept “cleaning,” to make room for other research. Also added a little more on the olfactory talents of animals and how they are put to use by humans.

  • In the pain section, added that it can be caused by changes in the sensitivity of neurons in the CNS; this finding may help explain how once-painful stimuli that are now harmless can continue to cause pain. Also added a finding that in diabetes patients, most of their improvement after taking pain medication was due to the placebo effect. Deleted the point about use of cognitive behavioral therapy for pain management—CBT is discussed in Chapter 12—but added a point about environmental and cultural influences on pain, including pain epidemics.

  • In the section on perceptual sets, finally retired the story about Walter Cronkite, replacing it with research on how expectations can reduce reactions to stimuli that would normally be unpleasant, such as the sound of nails scratching a chalkboard.

  • Deleted the brief point about subliminal priming because the replicability of the research has been questioned. Priming is still discussed in the memory chapter.

Chapter 7:

  • This chapter has undergone significant reorganization.
  • Updated the opening news story on the Ig Nobel prizes.

  • Shortened the discussion of linguistic relativity from three long paragraphs to one, keeping just the example about the influence of linguistically masculine or feminine words on descriptions of objects.

  • In the discussion of multitasking, added research on why it is so distracting to listen to a “halfalogue,” one side of someone else’s phone conversation. Deleted studies of brain activity during multitasking to make room.

  • Moved the discussion of insight and intuition from the section on nonconscious thinking to a new section on problem solving and decision making, and made mindlessness part of the nonconscious thinking discussion.

  • The new section on problem solving and decision making now covers algorithms and heuristics (formerly under “Reasoning Rationally”), and also intuition and insight. Added Daniel Kahneman’s distinction between fast and slow thinking, the topic of his recent best-selling book.

  • Deleted inductive and deductive reasoning—formal logic—to make room for other, more psychological material. Retained dialectical reasoning, so crucial for critical thinking.

  • Deleted the point about the adaptive function of the hindsight bias because we say at the end of the barriers discussion that biases in general have benefits and disadvantages. Also deleted the brief point about expertise and resistance to bias.

  • In “Measuring Intelligence,” added crystallized and fluid intelligence (which are also defined and discussed in Chapter 3).

  • Deleted the detailed description of the Johns et al. study, on reducing stereotype threat by telling people about it, but kept the point and the reference.

  • Moved metacognition from the triarchic theory to a new section, “Elements of Intelligence,” which also covers working memory (discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8). The triarchic theory and emotional intelligence also now have subheadings under “Elements of Intelligence.”

  • Deleted details about how genes might affect intelligence, because the findings have been difficult to replicate, and also the research on the heritability of gray matter volume. Any one gene is likely to have just a tiny influence on genetic variation in intelligence, as we note.

  • Updated the section on environmental influences on intelligence: Recent meta-analyses have established that four interventions boost IQ scores: supplementing the diets of pregnant women and newborns with essential fatty acids; reading interactively with young children; providing intense early education; and sending children to preschool. Deleted the study of Romanian orphans for space reasons. Still cite the Abecedarian study but without naming it.

  • In  “Animal Intelligence,” deleted the long description of the Köhler study but kept the photos; the caption explains this research. In the paragraph on border collies, replaced the description of Rico (although he’s still named) with the irresistible story of Chaser, who understands over 1,100 words. She was a sensation on Nova.

  • In “Taking Psychology with You,” added that creativity often requires solitude rather than brainstorming groups.

Chapter  8:

  • In the section on eyewitness testimony, added the finding that a misleading report by one eyewitness is just as misleading as the same report by three different witnesses. Deleted the Loftus & Zanni (1975) “broken headlight” study to make room.

  • Added a priming study using unusual sentence constructions as primes.

  • Clarified the nature of working memory (also briefly discussed in Chapter 7), and noted that its use is not disrupted in patients like H. M. Added an example of an arithmetic problem to show the “working” that goes on in working memory.

  • Added research showing that episodic memory allows us to imagine possible future experiences. This “time-travel” function can be motivating because people tend to forget negative episodic memories faster than positive ones, and thus imagine a rosy future.

  • Noted that the serial position effect can occur with memories of past personal experiences, not just semantic memories.

  • Added the important finding that remembering previously stored information destabilizes consolidation and can start a new round of consolidation, resulting in the remolding of the memory as new information is integrated into what was previously stored.

  • Moved mnemonics to the start of “How We Remember,” because they are less useful for most types of memories than the other strategies discussed. Deleted the separate section for “Read, Recite, Review” because that strategy is now introduced in Chapter 1 and is incorporated into every quiz.

  • Permission to use the Marigold Linton graph is no longer being given; because it was presented in contrast to the Ebbinghaus graph, we had to drop both of them. However, the results are still described clearly in the text.

  • In the discussion of childhood amnesia, clarified that most adults cannot recall events from earlier than age 2 (instead of “third or fourth years of life”) and that memories are sketchy at best until about age 6. Also added that conversations with parents and others help a child develop autobiographical memories.

  • Changed the “Taking Psychology with You” feature to one on constructing your own “life story.” Some of the previous material, on how to remember better, has been integrated into the chapter, along with the penny-recognition exercise, which is now a “Try It” feature in the section on effective encoding.

Chapter 9:

  • Updated the opening news story on zero-tolerance school policies to a more recent one.

  • Clarified the definition of classical conditioning by noting that it involves learning an association between stimuli, not between a stimulus and a response (as in operant conditioning). Also clarified the definition of an unconditioned stimulus, a thing or event that already produces a certain response without additional learning. Reflexivity or automaticity is not the governing concept in classical conditioning.

  • In “Biology and Conditioned Fears,” deleted the Lonsdorf study of a possible genetic influence on resistance to extinction of a fear response.

  • In the discussion of shaping, added an example of teaching cows to milk themselves by using a milking robot; it has been done! Replaces the hypothetical example of teaching a hamster to pick up a marble.

  • Added a review of studies on spanking, showing that although it may stop an undesirable behavior in the short term, it backfires in the long-term, and is associated with later mental health problems and slower cognitive development.

  • Added real-life research on offering students cash rewards for achievement; positive results may be limited to situations in which teachers and students are already motivated.

  • “Taking Psychology with You” now begins with the 2011 Supreme Court ruling overturning California’s ban on selling violent video games to minors.

Chapter 10:

  • Changed the opening story to the case of the Tsarnaev brothers, the bombers at the Boston marathon. Moved the former opening story of Lynndie England, a central figure in the Abu Ghraib scandal, to a critical-thinking photo and caption in the prison-study section.

  • Deleted the cyber-version of Milgram’s study, in which participants had to shock a virtual woman on a computer screen. Added the point that 50 years after Milgram’s original experiment, debate continues about its meaning and ethics.

  • To save space, deleted some of the American and international examples of the use of torture on prisoners.

  • In the discussion of attributions, explicitly labeled the “self-enhancement” bias or “better than average effect.”

  • Expanded the discussion of cognitive dissonance, using the metaphor of a pyramid to illustrate entrapment and self-justification.

  • In the discussion of coercive persuasion, deleted the study of female suicide bombers for space reasons.

  • In the discussion of conformity, added two basic cross-species motives: the need for social acceptance and the need for accurate information.

  • Updated the research on bystander apathy: A new meta-analysis found that in truly dangerous, unambiguous emergencies, people in groups are more likely to help–some because other people are around to add support and also because certain emergencies require a group response.

  • Updated the research on deindividuation, and deleted the story of online bystander apathy, which led to the death of a depressed young man.

  • Updated the discussion of ethnic identity and acculturation, with new statistics on the rise of interethnic marriage. Added a new “Get Involved” asking students to assess “How acculturated are you?”

  • In the section on stereotypes, deleted the 1985 Peabody study showing that when people like a group, their stereotype is positive (“thrifty”), but when they dislike the same group, their stereotype about the same trait is negative (“stingy”). This point still makes for a good class discussion.

  • For space reasons, deleted terror management theory under causes of prejudice.

  • Revised the list of ways of measuring implicit prejudice. These now include: measures of social distance and “microaggressions” (the small insults and indignities that members of minority or stigmatized groups endure); measures of unequal treatment (e.g., the implicit race prejudice involved in drug arrests); measures of what people do when angry or stressed (as before); measures of brain activity (updated); and measurement of implicit attitudes through use of the IAT (as before, but with expanded discussion of the debate over whether the IAT is truly measuring a stable “prejudice” rather than word associations and unfamiliarity).

Chapter 11:

  • This chapter has been thoroughly revised due to the 2013 publication of the DSM-5. Changes have been made in disorder names, organization, definitions, and discussion of criticisms.
  • Reorganization and relabeling: The section “Anxiety Disorders” still includes generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and fears and phobias, but PTSD and OCD are now in their own category, “Trauma-Related and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders.” Mood disorders are now called depressive and bipolar disorders. The section on “Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorder” has been changed to “Personality Disorders,” and includes borderline personality disorder and APD, with a separate discussion of psychopathy. The former section “Drug Abuse and Addiction” is now called “Substance-Abuse Disorders.”

  • New diagnoses: PMDD has been moved from the appendix of the DSM-4 to the main body of DSM-5, under depressive disorders. The DSM-5 gives “hoarding disorder” its own label. There are also new DSM-5 labels for everyday problems, including “parent-child relational problem,” “disruptive mood dysregulation disorder” (which applies to children prone to tantrums), and binge-eating disorder (with criteria vague enough to apply to almost everyone who occasionally overeats). The new edition also added “antidepressant discontinuation syndrome”—symptoms a person might have from trying to withdraw from the antidepressants that psychiatrists using the DSM are now freer to prescribe for more disorders.

  • Deleted diagnoses or concepts: The DSM-5 has eliminated Asperger’s syndrome in favor of autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the table of culture-bound syndromes, as the DSM-5 no longer uses this term, and replaced it with discussion of the DSM-5’s terms cultural syndromes, cultural idiom of distress, and cultural explanation of symptoms.

  • Criticisms of DSM-5 process and content. We give special attention to two 2013 books that address the controversy over the DSM in general and the DSM-5 in particular, Gary Greenberg’s The Book of Woe and Allen Frances’s Saving Normal. Both books are insider critiques of the process of revising the DSM-5 and its results: Greenberg was involved in clinical field tests and Frances was Editor of the DSM-4. They report the DSM-5’s low reliability in even basic disorders such as major depression, and rushed publication despite poor or incomplete field tests (empirical and clinical); the creation of childhood bipolar disorder due to one overzealous investigator paid handsomely by the pharmaceutical company that makes drugs for the alleged disorder; the expansion of more problems for which medication will be prescribed; and the consequent overdiagnosis of problems and disorders.

  • Deleted Wakefield’s definition of mental disorder as “harmful dysfunction,” since psychiatrists and other clinicians have never agreed on any single definition. We have retained our own very general definition.

  • In the section on the DSM’s problems at the beginning of the chapter, added the controversy over the DSM-5’s removal of the “bereavement exemption”: now people can be diagnosed with major depression right after their loss, even when grief is expected and normal.

  • In the section on projective tests, added recent research on the failure of “props” (and not just anatomical dolls) to improve the accuracy of children’s testimony.

  • In discussing causes of depression, added new studies of the gene-environment interaction; a major international study finding that sexual abuse and violence in childhood remain powerful predictors of major depression and suicide in adulthood; and research on the cognitive factors, such as memory distortions, that play a causal role in depression.

  • Added new findings on bipolar disorder, which the DSM-5 now places between schizophrenic spectrum disorders and depressive disorders, reporting evidence of shared biochemistry in those three disorders and others.

  • Expanded the discussion of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and the work of Marsha Linehan.

  • Revised the section on antisocial personality disorder (APD). The DSM-5 did not include psychopathy, as many clinicians hoped it would, but did add lack of remorse as one of the criteria for diagnosis of APD. The APD label thus includes psychopaths but also people who are not remorseless or emotionally cold, but who are criminal offenders and rule-breakers.

  • Added studies of ways of measuring callousness and unemotionality in children, dispositions that can develop into adult psychopathy.

  • The DSM-5 category “substance-related and addictive disorders” covers the abuse of numerous classes of drugs, including alcohol, caffeine, hallucinogens, inhalants, cocaine, tobacco, and “other (or unknown) substances.” It added “gambling disorder” as an addictive disorder, but not other supposed behavioral “addictions” such as to exercise, shopping, or sex. “Internet addiction” is in the DSM-5 appendix, warranting further study.

  • In the discussion of dissociative identity disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder), we added evidence from an investigation of the case of Sybil (see changes in Chapter 1), which found that the entire story was a fabrication.

  • Updated research on genetic and nongenetic influences in schizophrenia (the DSM category is “schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders”). Changed the fourth diagnostic criterion for this disorder to “grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior” (rather than “or inappropriate”). Changed the fifth diagnostic criterion to conform to the DSM-5, making it “negative symptoms, such as loss of motivation and emotional flatness.” These formerly had been discussed in the text but not in the list of symptoms. Deleted the symptom of impaired cognitive abilities, as these impairments are covered under other descriptive criteria for the disorder. Under “hallucinations,” added the point that healthy people may experience hallucinations too, for example after bereavement, as part of religious rituals, or in the state between sleep and waking.

Chapter 12:

  • Under antipsychotics, added the risk of tardive dyskinesia, weight gain, and diabetes. Added the point that antipsychotics are ineffective in reducing the symptoms of PTSD, although about one-fifth of combat veterans suffering from PTSD are being given these drugs.

  • Updated the critique and analysis of the overprescription and dangers of drugs for mental disorders. Yet another major meta-analysis has confirmed the Kirsch et al. finding that antidepressants do not do much more than placebos for mild depression and are primarily effective only for severe depression. Added a cautionary discussion of physical dependence on antidepressants and the side effects of going off them.

  • In the former list of six problems with medication for mental disorder, incorporated the former entry “dosage problems” under reasons for relapse and deleted some of the details about dosage effectiveness across ethnic groups.

  • Clarified the section on methods of direct brain intervention, dividing the discussion into its two forms: psychosurgery, which includes deep brain stimulation, and electrical brain stimulation, which includes ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and, new to this edition, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

  • Introduced the term cybertherapy, as used in virtual reality versions of systematic desensitization.  

  • In discussion of the movement to incorporate mindfulness and acceptance into cognitive therapy, added the method of attentional breathing.

  • In the section on the scientist-practitioner gap, deleted the discussion of EMDR. Added that in 2013, the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System, which approves the quality and level of scientific training in clinical programs, gained recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.

  • For space reasons, deleted multisystemic therapy.

  • In “Taking Psychology with You,” on becoming a smart consumer of psychological treatments, added a discussion of the benefits and risks of online therapy (delivered by apps, video, email, or smartphone).

Chapter 13:

  • Made a major change in identifying the components of emotion at the beginning of the chapter: these components are now physiological changes, cognitive interpretations and appraisals, action tendencies, and subjective feelings–all, in turn, shaped by the cultural and social context. Deleted the former distinction between primary and secondary emotions since the field has moved beyond this dichotomy.

  • Under facial feedback, added a fascinating story of how Botox hinders women’s ability to detect sadness and anger in others.

  • Updated the research on babies and facial expressions: Babies’ sensitivity to adults’ fearful expressions starts at about 6-7 months. Added more research on how context affects adults’ perception of other people’s emotions.

  • Added the case of a woman (S.M.) who has damage to the amygdala and was reported to be incapable of experiencing fear; added a subsequent follow-up, in which researchers learned that S. M. can feel fear in response to internal cues, such as feelings of suffocation.

  • Updated the work on mirror neurons (and the “mirror system” in the brain) to reflect the controversy in the field over their function in human beings, and describe the limitations of mirror neurons, which turn off when people watch perceived enemies or members of outgroups. Some popular writers have exaggerated and oversimplified the implications of mirror neurons.

  • In the discussion of the polygraph, added the point that the success rate in identifying whether someone is lying is only about 50 percent—chance.

  • In “Emotion and the Mind,” clarified the central role of appraisals in the creation of emotion and emotion blends. Added cross-cultural research showing that the Japanese are more likely to blame themselves when something goes wrong and as a result to experience shame, whereas Americans are more likely to blame others and experience anger. The next section on “Emotion and Culture” has been shortened somewhat, since the primary/secondary distinction was dropped.

  • In the section “Gender and Emotion,” added new research on how status influences the ability to read emotions.

  • In “The Nature of Stress,” added important work on children’s vulnerability to stressors in their early years, as the effects can snowball into adolescence and adulthood, affecting cognitive abilities and immune function.

  • Deleted a study comparing healthy women not under stress with caregivers of chronically ill children.

  • In “Stress and the Mind,” made changes that reflect a growing criticism of the oversimplification of positive psychology. Optimism itself is not related to health and longevity, and in some cases can actually be harmful. Thus we deleted the nun study and replaced the alleged benefits of “optimism” alone with the importance of conscientiousness (which may foster realistic optimism), as shown in Howard Friedman’s major follow-up study of the Termites. Similarly, we added the point that forgiveness is a good thing, but not when it keeps people stuck in bad relationships.

  • Added a study on the “dark side” of Facebook: Many college students underestimate their friends’ and peers’ bad moods and negative experiences, and overestimate how much fun their peers are having. Because they compare themselves to allegedly happier Facebook friends, many feel more lonely and dejected.

Chapter 14:

  • Changed the four opening stories to (1) a young man from Iowa, whose father is black and Baptist and whose mother is white and Jewish, who became Ireland’s champion Irish dancer, (2) the marriage of Hugh Hefner and Crystal Harris, (3) former New York City Mayor Bloomberg’s efforts to combat obesity by banning sales of large sugary drinks, and (4) Ohio high school football players convicted of raping an unconscious young woman.

  • In the section on weight, added recent research on the production of energy-burning brown fat, which is triggered by cold and exercise, and on the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates appetite.

  • Under the environmental causes of worldwide obesity epidemic, deleted the increase in sedentary life styles. That increase has certainly occurred, but it is not clearly related to the obesity epidemic, as was once believed. Also deleted the paragraph on the health risks of obesity to make room for recent speculations on other possible causes of obesity: sleeplessness, viruses, the presence of certain gut microbes, and pollutants (“obesogens”).

  • In the section on love, added recent research critical of oxytocin as the “love hormone” or the “cuddle hormone.”

  • Added a 2013 study showing that for avoidant lovers, anxiety is physiological as much as psychological: Their cortisol levels spike when they feel a relationship is threatened (e.g., by a partner’s temporary absence).

  • Added a fascinating critical and scientific review of research on online dating. Some matchmaking companies promise more “science” than they deliver, and these sites are often no better than old-fashioned ways of meeting, so users need to be cautious.

  • Updated the discussion of evolutionary theories of sex and sex differences, again noting the difference between what women and men say on surveys and their actual behavior. Added a study showing that many girls and women do not realize that the more sexualized their clothing, the more likely they are to be seen as incompetent and unintelligent.

  • Added findings from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation on life outcomes of children with differing attachment styles, and an updated discussion of the motives for love and marriage over the centuries.

  • In the discussion of achievement motivation, deleted the TAT, as the main focus of contemporary research on motivation has to do with goals (approach/avoidance and performance/mastery).

  • Updated the statistics on women in STEM occupations and added the growing problem of low motivation among men. As women have attained greater participation in fields that once were closed to them, young men have become likelier to suffer from dissatisfaction and low motivation to succeed, with some even rejecting college or dropping out of school.



 

Table of Contents

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents

 

 

1. Brief Table of Contents:

 

Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

 

Part One: Your Self

Chapter 2: Theories of Personality

Chapter 3: Development Over the Life Span

 

Part Two: Your Body

Chapter 4: Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain

Chapter 5: Body Rhythms and Mental States

Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception

 

Part Three: Your Mind

Chapter 7: Thinking and Intelligence

Chapter 8: Memory

 

Part Four: Your Environment

Chapter 9: Learning and Conditioning

Chapter 10: Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

 

Part Five: Your Mental Health

Chapter 11: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 12: Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

 

Part Six: Your Life

Chapter 13: Emotion, Stress, and Health

Chapter 14: The Major Motives of Life: Food, Love, Sex, and Work

 

 

 

2. Full Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

The Science of Psychology

What Psychologists Do

Critical and Scientific Thinking in Psychology

Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships

The Experiment: Hunting for Causes

Evaluating the Findings

 

Part One: Your Self

Chapter 2: Theories of Personality

Psychodynamic Theories of Personality

The Modern Study of Personality

The Modern Study of Personality

Environmental Influences on Personality

Cultural Influences on Personality

The Inner Experience

 

Chapter 3: Development Over the Life Span

From Conception Through the First Year

Language Development

Cognitive Development

Moral Development

Gender Development

Adolescence

Adulthood

The Wellsprings of Resilience

 

Part Two: Your Body

Chapter 4: Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain

The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint

Communication in the Nervous System

Mapping the Brain

A Tour Through the Brain

The Two Hemispheres of the Brain

The Flexible Brain

 

Chapter 5: Body Rhythms and Mental States

Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience

The Rhythms of Sleep

Exploring the Dream World

The Riddle of Hypnosis

Consciousness-Altering Drugs

 

Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception

Our Sensational Senses

Vision

Hearing

Other Senses

Perceptual Powers: Origins and Influences

Perception without Awareness

 

Part Three: Your Mind

Chapter 7: Thinking and Intelligence

Thought: Using What We Know

Reasoning Rationally

Barriers to Reasoning Rationally

Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach

Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach

The Origins of Intelligence

Animal Minds

 

Chapter 8: Memory

Reconstructing the Past

Memory and the Power of Suggestion

In Pursuit of Memory

The Three-Box Model of Memory

The Biology of Memory

How We Remember

Why We Forget

Autobiographical Memories

 

Part Four: Your Environment

Chapter 9: Learning and Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning in Real Life

Operant Conditioning

Principles of Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning in Real Life

Learning and the Mind

 

Chapter 10: Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

Roles and Rules

Social Influences on Beliefs and Behavior

Individuals in Groups

Us Versus Them: Group Identity

Prejudice and Group Conflict

 

Part Five: Your Mental Health

Chapter 11: Psychological Disorders

Diagnosing Mental Disorders

Anxiety Disorders 3

Trauma-Related and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders.

Personality Disorders

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Schizophrenia

 

Chapter 12: Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

Biological Treatments

Major Schools of Psychotherapy

Evaluating Psychotherapy

 

Part Six: Your Life

Chapter 13: Emotion, Stress, and Health

The Nature of Emotion

Emotion and Culture

The Nature of Stress

Stress and Emotion

Coping With Stress

 

Chapter 14: The Major Motives of Life: Food, Love, Sex, and Work

 

The Hungry Animal: Motives to Eat

 

The Social Animal: Motives to Love

The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex

The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve

Motives, Values, and the Pursuit of Happiness