Foundations of Modern Networking

Series
Addison-Wesley
Author
William Stallings  
Publisher
Addison-Wesley
Cover
Softcover
Edition
1
Language
English
Total pages
544
Pub.-date
October 2015
ISBN13
9780134175393
ISBN
0134175395
Related Titles


Product detail

Product Price CHF Available  
9780134175393
Foundations of Modern Networking
66.30 approx. 7-9 days

Description

SDN, NFV, and QoE: Foundations of Modern Networking is a comprehensive and unified survey of modern networking technology and applications for today's technical professionals, business professionals, and students. Using the same teaching approach that has earned him 13 "Computer Science Textbook of the Year" Awards, Dr. Stallings imparts a thorough understanding of SDN technology: how it works, how it is deployed, and how enterprises of all sizes can use it to deliver superior Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE).

Features

  • The most comprehensive, authoritative guide to SDN, QoS/QoE, and related technologies: components, interactions, standards, deployment, migration, usage, management, and more
  • Thoroughly introduces Quality of Experience (QoE): how enterprises are extending QoS to fully tailor their network services and performance around emerging customer needs
  • Contains extensive new application coverage -- from OTT and IPTV to cloud computing/services, Big Data, mobile, and Internet of Things
  • Includes detailed coverage of security, virtualization, OpenFlow, and many other key issues
  • Discusses the career implications of the shift to SDNs and the cloud: changing jobs, skills, and educational priorities
  • Promotes learning through carefully-crafted chapter objectives, summaries, questions, keyword lists, glossaries, and other features - including QR links to web resources

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

PART I MODERN NETWORKING 3

Chapter 1: Elements of Modern Networking 4

1.1 The Networking Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 Example Network Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

  A Global Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

  A Typical Network Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.3 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

  Applications of Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

  Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

  Ethernet Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.4 Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

     Applications of Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

  Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

  Wi-Fi Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.5 4G/5G Cellular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

  First Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

  Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

  Third Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

  Fourth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

  Fifth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.6 Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

  Cloud Computing Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

  The Benefits of Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

  Cloud Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

  Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1.7 Internet of Things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

  Things on the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

  Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

  Layers of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1.8 Network Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.9 Unified Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1.10 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Chapter 2: Requirements and Technology 38

2.1 Types of Network and Internet Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

  Elastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

  Inelastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

  Real-Time Traffic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

2.2 Demand: Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Mobile Traffic . . . . . . 45

  Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

  Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

  Mobile Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.3 Requirements: QoS and QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

  Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

  Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

2.4 Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

  Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

  Packet Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

  Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

  Elements of a Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

2.5 Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

  Effects of Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

  Congestion Control Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

2.6 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

  Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

  Network Functions Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

2.7 Modern Networking Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

2.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

PART II SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKS 75

Chapter 3: SDN: Background and Motivation 76

3.1 Evolving Network Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

  Demand Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

  Supply Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

  Traffic Patterns Are More Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

  Traditional Network Architectures are Inadequate . . . . . . . . . 79

3.2 The SDN Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

  Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

  SDN Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

  Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . 85

3.3 SDN- and NFV-Related Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

  Standards-Developing Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

  Industry Consortia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

  Open Development Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

3.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

3.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Chapter 4: SDN Data Plane and OpenFlow 92

4.1 SDN Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

  Data Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

  Data Plane Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

4.2 OpenFlow Logical Network Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

  Flow Table Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

  Flow Table Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

  The Use of Multiple Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

  Group Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

4.3 OpenFlow Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Chapter 5: SDN Control Plane 112

5.1 SDN Control Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

  Control Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

  Southbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

  Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

  Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.2 ITU-T Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

5.3 OpenDaylight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

  OpenDaylight Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

  OpenDaylight Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

5.4 REST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

  REST Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

  Example REST API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

5.5 Cooperation and Coordination Among Controllers . . . . . . . . 133

  Centralized Versus Distributed Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

  High-Availability Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

  Federated SDN Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

  Border Gateway Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

  Routing and QoS Between Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

  Using BGP for QoS Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

  IETF SDNi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

  OpenDaylight SNDi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

5.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Chapter 6: SDN Application Plane 144

6.1 SDN Application Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

  Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

  Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

  Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

     User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

6.2 Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

  Abstractions in SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

  Frenetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

6.3 Traffic Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

  PolicyCop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

6.4 Measurement and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6.5 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

  OpenDaylight DDoS Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6.6 Data Center Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

  Big Data over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

  Cloud Networking over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

6.7 Mobility and Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

6.8 Information-Centric Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

  CCNx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

  Use of an Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

6.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

PART III VIRTUALIATION 175

Chapter 7: Network Functions Virtualization: Concepts and Architecture 176

7.1 Background and Motivation for NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

7.2 Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

  The Virtual Machine Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

  Architectural Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

  Container Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

7.3 NFV Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

  Simple Example of the Use of NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

  NFV Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

  High-Level NFV Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

7.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

  NFV Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

  NFV Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

7.5 NFV Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

  NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

  Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

  Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

7.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

7.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Chapter 8: NFV Functionality 198

8.1 NFV Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

  Container Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

  Deployment of NFVI Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

  Logical Structure of NFVI Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

  Compute Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

  Hypervisor Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

  Infrastructure Network Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

8.2 Virtualized Network Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

  VNF Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

  VNFC to VNFC Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

  VNF Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

8.3 NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

  Virtualized Infrastructure Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

  Virtual Network Function Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

  NFV Orchestrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

  Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

  Element Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

  OSS/BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

8.4 NFV Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

  Architectural Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

  Service-Oriented Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

8.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

8.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

8.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Chapter 9: Network Virtualization 230

9.1 Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

  The Use of Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

  Defining VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

  Communicating VLAN Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

  IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

  Nested VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

9.2 OpenFlow VLAN Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

9.3 Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

  IPsec VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

  MPLS VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

9.4 Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

  A Simplified Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

  Network Virtualization Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

  Benefits of Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

9.5 OpenDaylight’s Virtual Tenant Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

9.6 Software-Defined Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

  Software-Defined Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

  SDI Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

9.7 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

PART IV DEFINING AND SUPPORTING USER NEEDS 265

Chapter 10: Quality of Service 266

10.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

10.2 QoS Architectural Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

  Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

  Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

  Management Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

10.3 Integrated Services Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

  ISA Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

  ISA Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

  ISA Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

  Queuing Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

10.4 Differentiated Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

  Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

  DiffServ Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

  DiffServ Configuration and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

  Per-Hop Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

  Default Forwarding PHB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

10.5 Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

10.6 IP Performance Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

10.7 OpenFlow QoS Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

  Queue Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

  Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

10.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

10.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Chapter 11: QoE: User Quality of Experience 300

11.1 Why QoE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

  Online Video Content Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

11.2 Service Failures Due to Inadequate QoE Considerations . . . . . 304

11.3 QoE-Related Standardization Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

11.4 Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

  Definition of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

  Definition of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

  Quality Formation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

  Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

11.5 QoE Strategies in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

  The QoE/QoS Layered Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

  Summarizing and Merging the QoE/QoS Layers . . . . . . . . . 310

11.6 Factors Influencing QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

11.7 Measurements of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

  Subjective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

  Objective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

  End-User Device Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

  Summarizing the QoE Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . 316

11.8 Applications of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

11.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

11.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Chapter 12: Network Design Implications of QoS and QoE 322

12.1 Classification of QoE/QoS Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . 323

  Black-Box Media-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . 323

  Glass-Box Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . 325

  Gray-Box QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

  Tips for QoS/QoE Mapping Model Selection . . . . . . . . . . . 327

12.2 IP-Oriented Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . 327

  Network Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . . . 328

  Application Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . 328

12.3 Actionable QoE over IP-Based Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

  The System-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 330

  The Service-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 331

12.4 QoE Versus QoS Service Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

  QoS Monitoring Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

  QoE Monitoring Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

12.5 QoE-Based Network and Service Management . . . . . . . . . 341

  QoE-Based Management of VoIP Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

  QoE-Based Host-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . . . 341

  QoE-Based Network-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . 342

12.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

PART V MODERN NETWORK ARCHITECTURE: CLOUDS AND FOG 347

Chapter 13: Cloud Computing 348

13.1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

13.2 Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

  Software as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

  Platform as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

  Infrastructure as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

  Other Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

  XaaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

13.3 Cloud Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

  Public Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

     Private Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

  Community Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

  Hybrid Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

13.4 Cloud Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

  NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . 361

  ITU-T Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . 365

13.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

  Service Provider Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

  Private Cloud Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

  ITU-T Cloud Computing Functional Reference Architecture . . . . . 369

13.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Chapter 14: The Internet of Things: Components 372

14.1 The IoT Era Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

14.2 The Scope of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

14.3 Components of IoT-Enabled Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

  Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

  Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

  Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

  Transceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

  RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

14.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

14.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Chapter 15: The Internet of Things: Architecture and Implementation 394

15.1 IoT Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

  ITU-T IoT Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

  IoT World Forum Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

15.2 IoT Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

  IoTivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

     Cisco IoT System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

  ioBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

15.3 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

15.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

PART VI RELATED TOPICS 433

Chapter 16: Security 434

16.1 Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

16.2 SDN Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

 Threats to SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

  Software-Defined Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

16.3 NFV Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

  Attack Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

  ETSI Security Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

  Security Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

16.4 Cloud Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

  Security Issues and Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

  Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . 450

  Data Protection in the Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

  Cloud Security as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

  Addressing Cloud Computer Security Concerns . . . . . . . . . 456

16.5 IoT Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

  The Patching Vulnerability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

  IoT Security and Privacy Requirements Defined by ITU-T . . . . . 459

  An IoT Security Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

16.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

16.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

Chapter 17: The Impact of the New Networking on IT Careers 466

17.1 The Changing Role of Network Professionals . . . . . . . . . . 467

  Changing Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

  Impact on Job Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

  Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

17.2 DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

  DevOps Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

  The Demand for DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

  DevOps for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

  DevOps Network Offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

  Cisco DevNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

  Conclusion on the Current State of DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . 479

17.3 Training and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

  Certification Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

  IT Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

17.4 Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

17.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

Appendix A: References 492

Glossary 498

9780134175393, TOC, 10/5/2015

 

Author

Dr. William Stallings has made a unique contribution to understanding the broad sweep of technical developments in computer security, computer networking, and computer architecture. He has authored 18 textbooks, and, counting revised editions, a total of 70 books on various aspects of these subjects. His writings have appeared in numerous ACM and IEEE publications, including the Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM Computing Reviews. He has 13 times received the award for the best computer science textbook of the year from the Text and Academic Authors Association.

 

In over 30 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. He has designed and implemented both TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. Currently, he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions.

 

He created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site at ComputerScie nceStudent.com/. This site provides documents and links on a variety of subjects of general interest to computer science students (and professionals). He is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia, a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology.

 

Dr. Stallings holds a Ph.D. from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.