Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering

Prentice Hall
David M. Himmelblau / James B. Riggs  
Total pages
May 2012
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Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering
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Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 8th Edition goes far beyond traditional introductory chemical engineering topics, presenting applications that reflect the full scope of contemporary chemical, petroleum, and environmental engineering. Celebrating its fiftieth Anniversary as the field’s leading practical introduction, it has been extensively updated and reorganised to cover today’s principles and calculations more efficiently, and to present far more coverage of bioengineering, nanoengineering, and green engineering.


Offering a strong foundation of skills and knowledge for successful study and practice, it guides students through formulating and solving material and energy balance problems, as well as describing gases, liquids, and vapors. Throughout, the authors introduce efficient, consistent, student-friendly methods for solving problems, analysing data, and gaining a conceptual, application-based understanding of modern chemical engineering processes. This edition’s improvements include many new problems, examples, and homework assignments.


  • Thoroughly covers material balances, gases, liquids, and energy balances
  • Contains new biotech and bioengineering problems throughout
  • Adds new examples and homework on nanotechnology, environmental engineering, and green engineering
  • All-new student projects chapter
  • Self-assessment tests, discussion problems, homework, and glossaries in each chapter
  • Power Points and instructor's solutions manual available for course use.

New to this Edition

This edition has been revised to reflect growing interest in the life sciences, adding biotechnology and bioengineering problems and examples throughout. It also adds many new examples and homework assignments on nanotechnology, environmental, and green engineering, plus many updates to existing examples. A new chapter presents multiple student projects, and several chapters from the previous edition have been condensed for greater focus.

Table of Contents

Preface         xiii

Read Me         xv

Acknowledgements         xix

About the Authors         xx



Chapter 1: What are Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering?         3

1.1 Introduction   3

1.2 A Brief History of Chemical Engineering   4

1.3 Where Do Chemical and Bioengineers Work?   6

1.4 Future Contributions of Chemical and Bioengineering   7

1.5 Conclusion   10


Chapter 2: Introductory Concepts         11

2.1 Systems of Units   12

2.2 Conversion of Units   17

2.3 Dimensional Consistency   25

2.4 Significant Figures   29

2.5 Validation of Results   36

2.6 The Mole and Molecular Weight   37

2.7 Choosing a Basis   44

2.8 Density and Specific Gravity   49

2.9 Concentration   55

2.10 Temperature   59

2.11 Pressure and Hydrostatic Head   65

2.12 Flow Rate   78


Part II: Material Balances         99

Chapter 3: Material Balances          101

3.1 Introduction to Material Balances   102

3.2 A General Strategy for Solving Material Balance Problems   123


Chapter 4: Material Balances without Reaction          159


Chapter 5: Material Balances Involving Reactions         189

5.1 Stoichiometry   190

5.2 Terminology for Reaction Systems   198

5.3 Species Mole Balances   210

5.4 Element Material Balances   226

5.5 Material Balances for Combustion Systems   233


Chapter 6: Material Balances for Multi-Unit Systems         267

6.1 Primary Concepts   268

6.2 Sequential Multi-Unit Systems   271

6.3 Recycle Systems   290

6.4 Bypass and Purge   306

6.5 The Industrial Application of Material Balances   314


Part III: Gases, Vapors, and Liquids          347

Chapter 7: Ideal and Real Gases         349

7.1 Ideal Gases   350

7.2 Real Gases: Equations of State   366

7.3 Real Gases: Compressibility Charts   377

7.4 Real Gas Mixtures   384


Chapter 8: Multiphase Equilibrium          411

8.1 Introduction   411

8.2 Phase Diagrams and the Phase Rule   413

8.3 Single Component Two-Phase Systems (Vapor Pressure)   425

8.4 Two-Component Gas/Single-Component Liquid Systems   436

8.5 Two Component Gas/Two Component Liquid Systems   455

8.6 Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium    466


Part IV: Energy           487

Chapter 9: Energy Balances         489

9.1 Terminology Associated with Energy Balances   491

9.2 Types of Energy to Be Included in Energy Balances   496

9.3 Energy Balances without Reaction   530


Chapter 10: Energy Balances: How to Account for Chemical Reaction          597

10.1 The Standard Heat (Enthalpy) of Formation   598

10.2 The Heat (Enthalpy) of Reaction   603

10.3 Integration of Heat of Formation and Sensible Heat   614

10.4 The Heat (Enthalpy) of Combustion   635


CHAPTER 11: Humidity (Psychrometric) Charts and Their Use 653

11.1 Terminology 654

11.2 The Humidity (Psychrometric) Chart 657

11.3 Applications of the Humidity Chart 666


Part V: Supplementary Material          681

Chapter 12: Analysis Of The Degrees Of Freedom in a Steady-State Process          683

Chapter 13: Heats of Solution and Mixing         708

Chapter 14: The Mechanical Energy Balance          728

Chapter 15: Liquids and Gases in Equilibrium with Solids          756

Chapter 16: Solving Material and Energy Balances UsingProcess Simulators (Flowsheeting Codes)         768

Chapter 17: Unsteady-State Material And Energy Balances          800


Appendixes          827

Appendix A: Answers to Supplemental Questions and Problems 829

Appendix B: Atomic Weights and Numbers         844

Appendix C: Table of the Pitzer Z0 and Z1 Factors         845

Appendix D: Heats of Formation and Combustion         850

Appendix E: Answers to Selected Problems         854

Appendix F: Physical Properties Of Various Organic And Inorganic Substances         861

Appendix G: Heat Capacity Equations         873

Appendix H: Vapor Pressures         877

Appendix I: Heats of Solution and Dilution         878

Appendix J: Enthalpy-Concentration Data          879

Appendix K: Thermodynamic Charts         886

Appendix L: Physical Properties of Petroleum Fractions         893

Appendix M: Solution of Sets of Equations          902

Appendix N: Fitting Functions to Data          924


Index         928


David M. Himmelblau was (until his death in April) the American Petrofina Foundation Centennial Professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas, Austin. The author of sixteen books, his areas of research included the use of artificial neural networks for fault diagnosis and data rectification. James B. Riggs is Professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at Texas Tech University, where he directs the Texas Tech Process Control and Optimization Consortium. His books include Chemical Process Control, Second Edition and An Introduction to Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers, Second Edition.