IPv6 Security

Cisco Press
Scott Hogg / Eric Vyncke  
Total pages
December 2008

Product detail

Product Price CHF Available  
IPv6 Security
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Introduction to IPv6 Security

Reintroduction to IPv6 3

IPv6 Update 6

IPv6 Vulnerabilities 7

Hacker Experience 8

IPv6 Security Mitigation Techniques 9


Recommended Readings and Resources

Chapter 2 IPv6 Protocol Security Vulnerabilities

The IPv6 Protocol Header


        ICMPv6 Functions and Message Types

        ICMPv6 Attacks and Mitigation Techniques

    Multicast Security

Extension Header Threats

    Extension Header Overview

    Extension Header Vulnerabilities

    Hop-by-Hop Options Header and Destination Options Header

        IPv6 Extension Header Fuzzing

        Router Alert Attack

    Routing Headers

        RH0 Attack

        Preventing RH0 Attacks

        Additional Router Header Attack Mitigation Techniques

    Fragmentation Header

        Overview of Packet Fragmentation Issues

        Fragmentation Attacks

        Preventing Fragmentation Attacks

        Virtual Fragment Reassembly

    Unknown Option Headers

    Upper-Layer Headers

Reconnaissance on IPv6 Networks

    Scanning and Assessing the Target

        Registry Checking

        Automated Reconnaissance

    Speeding Up the Scanning Process

        Leveraging Multicast for Reconnaissance

        Automated Reconnaissance Tools

        Sniffing to Find Nodes

        Neighbor Cache

        Node Information Queries

    Protecting Against Reconnaissance Attacks

Layer 3 and Layer 4 Spoofing



Chapter 3 IPv6 Internet Security

Large-Scale Internet Threats

    Packet Flooding

    Internet Worms

        Worm Propagation

        Speeding Worm Propagation in IPv6

        Current IPv6 Worms

        Preventing IPv6 Worms

    Distributed Denial of Service and Botnets

        DDoS on IPv6 Networks

        Attack Filtering

        Attacker Traceback

        Black Holes and Dark Nets

Ingress/Egress Filtering

    Filtering IPv6 Traffic

    Filtering on Allocated Addresses

    Bogon Filtering

    Bogon Filtering Challenges and Automation

Securing BGP Sessions

    Explicitly Configured BGP Peers

    Using BGP Session Shared Secrets

    Leveraging an IPsec Tunnel

    Using Loopback Addresses on BGP Peers

    Controlling the Time-to-Live (TTL) on BGP Packets

    Filtering on the Peering Interface

    Using Link-Local Peering

        Link-Local Addresses and the BGP Next-Hop Address

        Drawbacks of Using Link-Local Addresses

    Preventing Long AS Paths

    Limiting the Number of Prefixes Received

    Preventing BGP Updates Containing Private AS Numbers

    Maximizing BGP Peer Availability

        Disabling Route-Flap Dampening

        Disabling Fast External Fallover

        Enabling Graceful Restart and Route Refresh or Soft Reconfiguration

        BGP Connection Resets

    Logging BGP Neighbor Activity

    Securing IGP

    Extreme Measures for Securing Communications Between BGP Peers

IPv6 over MPLS Security

    Using Static IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels Between PE Routers

    Using 6PE

    Using 6VPE to Create IPv6-Aware VRFs

Customer Premises Equipment

Prefix Delegation Threats



Multihoming Issues



Chapter 4 IPv6 Perimeter Security

IPv6 Firewalls

    Filtering IPv6 Unallocated Addresses

    Additional Filtering Considerations

        Firewalls and IPv6 Headers

        Inspecting Tunneled Traffic

        Layer 2 Firewalls

        Firewalls Generate ICMP Unreachables

        Logging and Performance

    Firewalls and NAT

Cisco IOS Router ACLs

    Implicit IPv6 ACL Rules

    Internet ACL Example

    IPv6 Reflexive ACLs

Cisco IOS Firewall

    Configuring IOS Firewall

    IOS Firewall Example

    IOS Firewall Port-to-Application Mapping for IPv6

Cisco PIX/ASA/FWSM Firewalls

    Configuring Firewall Interfaces

    Management Access

    Configuring Routes

    Security Policy Configuration

    Object Group Policy Configuration

    Fragmentation Protection

    Checking Traffic Statistics

    Neighbor Discovery Protocol Protections



Chapter 5 Local Network Security

Why Layer 2 Is Important

ICMPv6 Layer 2 Vulnerabilities for IPv6

    Stateless Address Autoconfiguration Issues

    Neighbor Discovery Issues

    Duplicate Address Detection Issues

    Redirect Issues

ICMPv6 Protocol Protection

    Secure Neighbor Discovery

    Implementing CGA Addresses in Cisco IOS

    Understanding the Challenges with SEND

Network Detection of ICMPv6 Attacks

    Detecting Rogue RA Messages

    Detecting NDP Attacks

Network Mitigation Against ICMPv6 Attacks


    Reducing the Target Scope

    IETF Work

    Extending IPv4 Switch Security to IPv6

Privacy Extension Addresses for the Better and the Worse

DHCPv6 Threats and Mitigation

    Threats Against DHCPv6

    Mitigating DHCPv6 Attacks

        Mitigating the Starvation Attack

        Mitigating the DoS Attack

        Mitigating the Scanning

        Mitigating the Rogue DHCPv6 Server

Point-to-Point Link

Endpoint Security



Chapter 6 Hardening IPv6 Network Devices

Threats Against Network Devices

Cisco IOS Versions

Disabling Unnecessary Network Services

    Interface Hardening

Limiting Router Access

    Physical Access Security

    Securing Console Access

    Securing Passwords

    VTY Port Access Controls

    AAA for Routers

    HTTP Access

IPv6 Device Management

    Loopback and Null Interfaces

    Management Interfaces

    Securing SNMP Communications

Threats Against Interior Routing Protocol

    RIPng Security

    EIGRPv6 Security

    IS-IS Security

    OSPF Version 3 Security

First-Hop Redundancy Protocol Security

    Neighbor Unreachability Detection



Controlling Resources

    Infrastructure ACLs

    Receive ACLs

    Control Plane Policing

QoS Threats



Chapter 7 Server and Host Security

IPv6 Host Security

    Host Processing of ICMPv6

    Services Listening on Ports

        Microsoft Windows



        Sun Solaris

    Checking the Neighbor Cache

        Microsoft Windows



        Sun Solaris

    Detecting Unwanted Tunnels

        Microsoft Windows



        Sun Solaris

    IPv6 Forwarding

        Microsoft Windows



        Sun Solaris

    Address Selection Issues

        Microsoft Windows



        Sun Solaris

Host Firewalls

    Microsoft Windows Firewall

    Linux Firewalls

    BSD Firewalls

        OpenBSD Packet Filter



    Sun Solaris

Securing Hosts with Cisco Security Agent 6.0



Chapter 8 IPsec and SSL Virtual Private Networks

IP Security with IPv6

    IPsec Extension Headers

    IPsec Modes of Operation

    Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

        IKE Version 2

    IPsec with Network Address Translation

    IPv6 and IPsec

Host-to-Host IPsec

Site-to-Site IPsec Configuration

    IPv6 IPsec over IPv4 Example

        Configuring IPv6 IPsec over IPv4

        Verifying the IPsec State

        Adding Some Extra Security

        Dynamic Crypto Maps for Multiple Sites

    IPv6 IPsec Example

        Configuring IPsec over IPv6

        Checking the IPsec Status

    Dynamic Multipoint VPN

        Configuring DMVPN for IPv6

        Verifying the DMVPN at the Hub

        Verifying the DMVPN at the Spoke

Remote Access with IPsec




Chapter 9 Security for IPv6 Mobility

Mobile IPv6 Operation

MIPv6 Messages

    Indirect Mode

    Home Agent Address Determination

    Direct Mode

Threats Linked to MIPv6

    Protecting the Mobile Device Software

    Rogue Home Agent

    Mobile Media Security

    Man-in-the-Middle Threats

    Connection Interception

    Spoofing MN-to-CN Bindings

    DoS Attacks

Using IPsec with MIPv6

Filtering for MIPv6

    Filters at the CN

    Filters at the MN/Foreign Link

    Filters at the HA

Other IPv6 Mobility Protocols

    Additional IETF Mobile IPv6 Protocols

    Network Mobility (NEMO)

    IEEE .16e

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks



Chapter 10 Securing the Transition Mechanisms

Understanding IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Techniques



        Configured Tunnels

        6to4 Tunnels

        ISATAP Tunnels

        Teredo Tunnels


    Protocol Translation

Implementing Dual-Stack Security

    Exploiting Dual-Stack Environment

    Protecting Dual-Stack Hosts

Hacking the Tunnels

    Securing Static Tunnels

    Securing Dynamic Tunnels




    Securing 6VPE

Attacking NAT-PT

IPv6 Latent Threats Against IPv4 Networks



Chapter 11 Security Monitoring

Managing and Monitoring IPv6 Networks

    Router Interface Performance

    Device Performance Monitoring

        SNMP MIBs for Managing IPv6 Networks

        IPv6-Capable SNMP Management Tools

        NetFlow Analysis

    Router Syslog Messages

    Benefits of Accurate Time

Managing IPv6 Tunnels

Using Forensics

Using Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

    Cisco IPS Version 6.1

    Testing the IPS Signatures

Managing Security Information with CS-MARS

Managing the Security Configuration



Chapter 12 IPv6 Security Conclusions

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Security

    Similarities Between IPv4 and IPv6

    Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

Changing Security Perimeter

Creating an IPv6 Security Policy

    Network Perimeter

    Extension Headers

    LAN Threats

    Host and Device Hardening

    Transition Mechanisms


    Security Management

On the Horizon

Consolidated List of Recommendations





1587055945    TOC    11/25/2008

Back Cover

IPv6 Security


Protection measures for the next Internet Protocol


As the world’s networks migrate to the IPv6 protocol, networking professionals need a clearer understanding of the security risks, threats, and challenges this transition presents. In IPv6 Security, two of the world’s leading Internet security practitioners review each potential security issue introduced by IPv6 networking and present today’s best solutions.


IPv6 Security offers guidance for avoiding security problems prior to widespread IPv6 deployment. The book covers every component of today’s networks, identifying specific security deficiencies that occur within IPv6 environments and demonstrating how to combat them.


The authors describe best practices for identifying and resolving weaknesses as you maintain a dual stack network. Then they describe the security mechanisms you need to implement as you migrate to an IPv6-only network. The authors survey the techniques hackers might use to try to breach your network, such as IPv6 network reconnaissance, address spoofing, traffic interception, denial of service, and tunnel injection.


The authors also turn to Cisco® products and protection mechanisms. You learn how to use Cisco IOS® and ASA firewalls and ACLs to selectively filter IPv6 traffic. You also learn about securing hosts with Cisco Security Agent 6.0 and about securing a network with IOS routers and switches. Multiple examples are explained for Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris hosts. The authors offer detailed examples that are consistent with today’s best practices and easy to adapt to virtually any IPv6 environment.


Scott Hogg, CCIE® No. 5133, is Director of Advanced Technology Services at Global Technology Resources, Inc. (GTRI). He is responsible for setting the company’s technical direction and helping it create service offerings for emerging technologies such as IPv6. He is the Chair of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force.


Eric Vyncke, Cisco Distinguished System Engineer, consults on security issues throughout Europe. He has 20 years’ experience in security and teaches security seminars as a guest professor at universities throughout Belgium. He also participates in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and has helped several organizations deploy IPv6 securely.


  • Understand why IPv6 is already a latent threat in your IPv4-only network
  • Plan ahead to avoid IPv6 security problems before widespread deployment
  • Identify known areas of weakness in IPv6 security and the current state of attack tools and hacker skills
  • Understand each high-level approach to securing IPv6 and learn when to use each
  • Protect service provider networks, perimeters, LANs, and host/server connections
  • Harden IPv6 network devices against attack
  • Utilize IPsec in IPv6 environments
  • Secure mobile IPv6 networks
  • Secure transition mechanisms in use during the migration from IPv4 to IPv6
  • Monitor IPv6 security
  • Understand the security implications of the IPv6 protocol, including issues related to ICMPv6 and the IPv6 header structure
  • Protect your network against large-scale threats by using perimeter filtering techniques and service provider–focused security practices
  • Understand the vulnerabilities that exist on IPv6 access networks and learn solutions for mitigating each



This security book is part of the Cisco Press® Networking Technology Series. Security titles from Cisco Press help networking professionals secure critical data and resources, prevent and mitigate network attacks, and build end-to-end self-defending networks.


Category: Networking: Security

Covers: IPv6 Security




Scott Hogg, CCIE No. 5133, has been a network computing consultant for more than 17 years. Scott provides network engineering, security consulting, and training services, focusing on creating reliable, high-performance, secure, manageable, and cost-effective network solutions. He has a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Colorado State University and a master’s degree in telecommunications from the University of Colorado. In addition to his CCIE he has his CISSP (No. 4610) and many other vendor and industry certifications. Scott has designed, implemented, and troubleshot networks for many large enterprises, service providers, and government organizations. For the past eight years, Scott has been researching IPv6 technologies. Scott has written several white papers on IPv6 and has given numerous presentations and demonstrations of IPv6 technologies. He is also currently the chair of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force and the Director of Advanced Technology Services at Global Technology Resources, Inc. (GTRI), a Cisco Gold partner headquartered in Denver, Colorado.


Eric Vynckeis a Distinguished System Engineer for Cisco working as a technical consultant for security covering Europe. His main area of expertise for 20 years has been security from Layer 2 to applications. He has helped several organizations deploy IPv6 securely. For the past eight years, Eric has participated in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (he is the author of RFC 3585). Eric is a frequent speaker at security events (notably Cisco Live [formerly Networkers]) and is also a guest professor at Belgian Universities for security seminars. He has a master’s degree in computer science engineering from the University of Liège in Belgium. He worked as a research assistant in the same university before joining Network Research Belgium, where he was the head of R&D; he then joined Siemens as a project manager for security projects including a proxy firewall. He coauthored the Cisco Press book LAN Switch Security: What Hackers Know About Your Switches. He is CISSP No. 75165.