MPLS and Next-Generation Networks: Foundations for NGN and Enterprise Virtualization

Cisco Press
Azhar Sayeed / Monique Morrow  
Total pages
November 2006

Product detail

Title no longer available

Table of Contents



Part I The Business Case for MPLS

Chapter 1 Dynamics of Service Creation and Deployment

Industry Dynamics and Challenges

What About the Enterprise Market?

Service Provider Business Engineering

Business Drivers and Requirements

Enterprise Customers

Enterprise Motivations for Migrating to Layer 3 Services

Service Providers and Enterprise: The Battle of Outsourcing Versus Do-It-Yourself


Enterprise Segmentation

Central Services with an Enterprise Campus

Subscribing to a Managed Layer 3 MPLS VPN Service

The Case for Building VPNs—Layer 2 or Layer 3

Existing Technologies—Frame Relay, ATM, and IP-Based Networks: What Can They Solve?

Frame Relay

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

The Internet Protocol

Service Examples


Chapter 2 The Scope of Service Types

Overview of Layer 2 Services

Ethernet Services

Next-Generation Network Overview and Interworking Functions

Layer 3 Services

Remote Access

Value-Added Services


Part 2 The Technical Case for MPLS

Chapter 3 Technology Overview: Making the Technology case for MPLS and Technology Details

Available Technologies and Options

Why MPLS? (High-Level Detail)

MPLS and Quality of Service

Differentiating Service with Traffic Engineering



MPLS Technology Details

Layer 3 VPNs

Peer-to-Peer Model

VRF and Its Function

MPLS Label Stack Role


Carrier Supporting Carrier and Inter-Provider Autonomous Systems

Traffic Engineering


Layer 2 VPNs


Part 3 MPLS Services and Components

Chapter 4 Layer 2 VPNs


Introducing AToM

Pseudowire Systems Architecture

Packet Forwarding

Layer 2 Transport Types (Like-to-Like)

Ethernet Service

Link Layer Service

Frame Relay Service

ATM Service117

Configuration of Pseudowires

Layer 2 Interworking

Interworking Modes

Interworking Models and Applications

Virtual Private LAN Service

Considerations for VPLS

Provisioning and Signaling

LDP Signaling

BGP Signaling

Benefits of L2VPNs

Inter-AS L2VPNs

Supported IETF Standards


Standards and References

Part 4 Layer 3 VPNs1

Chapter 5 Technology Overview

Separation of Routing Information Between VPNs

Constrained Distribution of Routing Information

Forwarding Packets Through the Network Core

Packet Flow Through the Network

Corporate Intranet

Corporate Extranet

Internet Access

Dedicated per-VPN Internet Access

Shared PE—Internet and VPN

Dedicated PE—Shared Backbone

Managed Central Service—Shared Internet Access

Scaling MPLS VPNs to Multi-AS, Multi-Provider, and Hierarchical Networks

Inter-AS VPNs

Carrier Supporting Carrier

Heterogeneous Networks

Managed Central Services

Making Applications and Services VRF-Aware

VRF-Aware Address Management

Supported IETF Drafts


Standards and References:

Chapter 6 Remote Access and IPSec Integration with MPLS VPNs

Technology Overview

Dial Access

Individual Access

CE Dial Backup Access

Dial-Out Access

DSL Access

Routed Encapsulation

Bridged Encapsulation

Cable Access

PE-CE Routing Protocols

Scalability and Network Convergence for Remote Access


Chapter 7 MPLS Security

Security and NGN

Security Overview and MPLS

MPLS VPN and Security

Attack Scenarios

Internet/Extranet and MPLS Security


MPLS VPN (BGP VPN) Security Issues and Options

Layer 2 and Unmanaged VPN Service Considerations

Design Option Examples

Carrier’s Carrier Network and Inter-Autonomous Considerations

Customer Edge Router Security Considerations

Overall Best Practice Recommendations


Standards and References

Chapter 8 Traffic Engineering

Problem Statement

Technology Overview

IGP Extensions and Distribution of Constraints

Signaling of TE Tunnels

Forwarding Packets Through the Network Core

Sequence of Operation

TE Tunnel Maintenance

TE Applications and Examples

Intra-Area TE

Inter-Autonomous System TE

Quality of Service and TE

Traffic Handling of Delay-Sensitive Traffic

Protection and Restoration

Link Protection

Node Protection

Path Protection

Usage Scenarios

Scalability of Protection Mechanisms

Scaling MPLS TE

MPLS Traffic Engineering and Multicast

Standards and References


Chapter 9 Quality of Service

Problem Statement


QoS Building Blocks



Packet Handling

The Hybrid Model


MPLS DiffServ

Traffic Engineering and DiffServ

DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering

MPLS QoS Service Examples

Point-to-Cloud Model

Olympic Service Model

Traffic-Engineered Voice Model

Virtual Leased Line

On-Demand QoS

MPLS and IntServ

Traffic Flows to MPLS DiffServ Mapping

Tunnel-Based Admission Control

Standards and References


Chapter 10 Mutlicasts and NGNs

Problem Statement

MPLS Multicast VPN Overview

Multicast VPN Operational Details

MPLS Multicast VPN Applications and Examples

Multicast Security and Management Considerations

Standards and References


Chapter 11 IPv6 and MPLS

Problem Statement

Technology Overview


Multiprotocol BGP Extensions

Packet Path

IPv6 VPNs (6VPE)

Route Tagging

Virtual Routing and Forwading with IPv6

Packet Path

The Coexistence of IPv4 L3VPN and IPv6 L3VPN

IPv6 Network Core

Inter-AS Networks for 6PE and v6VPNs

IPv6 QoS

MPLS QoS for IPv6

Management and IPv6


Part 4 Bringing Your MPLS Plan Together

Chapter 12 Network Management and Provisioning

Problem Statement

Fault Management, Configuration Management, Accounting Management, Performance Management, and Security Management


VRF-Aware ICMP Ping and LSP Ping/Trace Mechanisms

Dealing with Equal Cost Multipaths

Noncompliant Routers

LSR Self-Test

Virtual Circuit Connection Verification and Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

A Word About Interworking OAM

Any to Any

Local Switching

Encapsulation Types and Modes


ATM N:1 Mode

ATM 1:1 Mode



Frame Relay over MPLS

Generic Failure Types

Interface Failure

Pseudowire Failures

Tunnel LSP Failures

Configuration Management for MPLS-Based Networks

Accounting for MPLS-Based Networks

Performance Management for MPLS-Based Networks

Security Management for MPLS-Based Networks

Per-VPN Management

IP Addressing

VRF-Aware Network Address Translation

Supported MIBs

Standards and References


Chapter 13 Design Considerations: Putting it All Together

VRF-Aware Feature

IP Addressing: VRF-Aware DHCP

DHCP Deployment Examples

Deployment Guideline Summary

VRF-Aware Network Address Translation

NAT-PE System Flow

Inside-to-Outside Packet Flow

Outside-to-Inside Packet Flow

Deployment Guideline Summary

Management, Provisioning, and Troubleshooting

Equipment Scalability Versus Network Scalability

Network Element Characteristics

Network Parameters

Network-Wide Scale

Management and Scalability

Layer 2 VPNs—What to Expect

Same Grade of Service

Planning and Sizing




Chapter 14 MPLS Case Studies

The Background on Equant

Equant Business Drivers

Equant Services

VPN Bridge Case Study


Customer Issues/Objectives

The Account Team’s Keys to Success

Case Study Conclusion


Chapter 15 The Future of MPLS

Integrating IP and Optical Networks (Transport Area)

How Does it Work?

Bandwidth On-Demand Service

Challenges Faced with G-MPLS and UCP

Future Layer 3 Services

Label-Switched Multicast

Dynamic Encrypted VPNs

Content-Based Services

Adaptive Networks for Integration of Voice and Video

Security Enhancements

Future Layer 2 Services

ATM-MPLS Interworking

Layer 2 VPNs Across Multiple Provider Networks

VPLS Service Across a Non-Ethernet Last Mile

Future Enhancements in Provisioning and Management

Adaptive Self-Healing Networks

Increasing Enterprise Deployment of MPLS


So, What Is the Future of MPLS?

A View from George Swallow

A View from Adrian Farrell


Back Cover

Understand the business case for deploying MPLS-based services and solutions

  • Provides network managers and architects a precise MPLS primer
  • Defines MPLS service problems and their associated solutions
  • Includes ROI models for MPLS-based solutions
  • Discusses pros and cons of various options for each MPLS service

Network managers often question the value that MPLS brings to their business environment. This book provides them with a precise guide for evaluating the benefits of MPLS-based applications and solutions. The book guides the network manager through the business case for MPLS by exploring other technology alternatives, including their applications, benefits, and deficiencies. Understanding the service creation process as the basis for MPLS-based solutions is pivotal when describing the benefits that MPLS offers. Furthermore, the book explores MPLS technology and its components, providing an overview of the architecture necessary to reap the true advantages that MPLS brings to a service provider or enterprise network. These advantages include new revenue opportunities and a total cost of ownership reduction that positively impacts a company's bottom-line. ROI models and case study examples further confirm the business impact and help decision-makers create a blueprint for MPLS service creation. Specific aspects such as security, network management, advanced services and the future of the technology complete the book, helping decision makers assess MPLS as a candidate for implementation. In short, you can use this comprehensive guide to understand and build a business case for the inclusion of MPLS in your network.


Monique Jeanne Morrow is currently a Distinguished Consulting Engineer at CiscoSystems, Inc. She has more than 20 years experience in IP internetworking that includesdesign, implementation of complex customer projects, and service development for serviceproviders. Monique has been involved in developing managed network services, such asremote access and LAN switching in a service provider environment. Monique has workedfor both enterprise and service provider companies in the U.S. and in Europe. In 1999,Monique led the engineering project team for one of the first MPLS-VPN deployments fora European service provider. Monique has presented in various conferences on the topic of MPLS. Additionally, Monique is coauthor of the book Designing IP-Based Services: Solutions for Vendors and Service Providers Monique is also the coauthor of MPLS VPN Security and MPLS forDecision Makers She is working on a book that presents enterprise drivers and concerns for IP-based service delivery. Monique is active in both the IETF and ITU-T SG 13 with a focus on OAM. She has a master’s of science degree in telecommunications management and an MBA. Additionally, Monique is vice chair of IPsphere Forum. Monique is currently engaged in MPLS OAM standards development and has been engaged in international carrier discussions on the topic. Monique was a co-guest editor of a special issue of the IEEE Communications Magazine on the subject of “OAM in MPLSBasedNetworks,” which was published in October 2004. She was also a guest editor of aspecial issue of the IEEE Communications Magazine on the subject of “Challenges inEnabling Inter-Provider Service Quality on the Internet,” published in June 2005 and on thesubject of, “GMPLS: The Promise of the Next Generation Optical Control Plane,”published in July 2005. Finally, Monique is working on NGN for service providers andGRID technology.

Azhar Sayeed is currently the director of product management for the Cisco NetworkSoftware and Systems Group. He has more than 16 years of networking andcommunications industry experience. Azhar is currently responsible for productmanagement and roll out of MPLS, Layer 2 and Layer 3 VPNs, broadband technologies IProuting, and Qo) features in Cisco IOS software. Cisco IOS software is the network systemsoftware that powers the majority of Cisco hardware platforms.Prior to joining Cisco in 1998, Azhar worked for Cabletron Systems as aproduct line manager for the ATM group. He designed and implemented productdevelopment strategies and brought products to market. He has held additionalindustry positions including that of an ATM aviator with Digital EquipmentCorporation where he supported presale operations of the High PerformanceNetworks group for Digital.Azhar started his career as a field engineer, installing X.25 and Frame Relaygear for large service provider and enterprise networks. Since then, he has beeninvolved with ATM and MPLS in DEC, Cabletron, and Cisco.Azhar has published several research papers from his master’s thesis anddozens of magazine articles on MPLS and QoS. He has been invited to speak atseveral conferences, such as MPLS 2002 through MPLS 2005. He has also spokenat MPLS Con 2002, Broadband Year, Comdex, N+I, Supercomm, APRICOT,MPLS World Congress, and so on.Azhar’s interests include network protocols and wireless and broadbandtechnologies. Azhar holds a bachelor’s degree in electronics and communicationsand a master’s degree in electrical engineering. He is also a member of IEEE andIEEE communications society.