Cloud Computing: Automating the Virtualized Data Center

Cisco Press
Venkata Josyula / Malcolm Orr / Greg Page  
Total pages
November 2011
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Cloud Computing: Automating the Virtualized Data Center
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The complete guide to provisioning and managing cloud-based Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) data center solutions

Cloud computing will revolutionize the way IT resources are deployed, configured, and managed for years to come. Service providers and customers each stand to realize tremendous value from this paradigm shift-if they can take advantage of it. Cloud Computing brings together the realistic, start-to-finish guidance they need to plan, implement, and manage cloud solution architectures for tomorrow's virtualized data centers. It introduces cloud “newcomers” to essential concepts, and offers experienced operations professionals detailed guidance on delivering Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS).


This book's replicable solutions and fully-tested best practices will help enterprises, service providers, consultants, and Cisco partners meet the challenge of provisioning end-to-end cloud infrastructures. Drawing on extensive experience working with leading cloud vendors and integrators, the authors present detailed operations workflow examples, proven techniques for operating cloud-based network, compute, and storage infrastructure; a comprehensive management reference architecture; and a complete case study demonstrating rapid, lower-cost solutions design.


Cloud Computing will be an indispensable resource for all network/IT professionals and managers involved with planning, implementing, or managing the next generation of cloud computing services.


Venkata (Josh) Josyula, Ph.D., CCIE® No. 13518 is a Distinguished Services Engineer in Cisco Services Technology Group (CSTG) and advises Cisco customers on OSS/BSS architecture and solutions.

Malcolm Orr, Solutions Architect for Cisco's Services Technology Solutions, advises telecoms and enterprise clients on architecting, building, and operating OSS/BSS and cloud management stacks. He is Cisco's lead architect for several Tier 1 public cloud projects.

Greg Page has spent the last eleven years with Cisco in technical consulting roles relating to data center architecture/technology and service provider security. He is now exclusively focused on developing cloud/IaaS solutions with service providers and systems integrator partners.


·        Review the key concepts needed to successfully deploy clouds and cloud-based services

·        Transition common enterprise design patterns and use cases to the cloud

·        Master architectural principles and infrastructure designs for “real-time” managed IT services

·        Understand the Cisco approach to cloud-related technologies, systems, and services

·        Develop a cloud management architecture using ITIL, TMF, and ITU-TMN standards

·        Implement best practices for cloud service provisioning, activation, and management

·        Automate cloud infrastructure to simplify service delivery, monitoring, and assurance

·        Choose and implement the right billing/chargeback approaches for your business

·        Design and build IaaS services, from start to finish

·        Manage the unique capacity challenges associated with sporadic, real-time demand

·        Provide a consistent and optimal cloud user experience


This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.


Category:  Cloud Computing

Covers: Virtualized Data Centers


Table of Contents

                Introduction xvi

Part I Introduction to Managing Virtualization and Cloud Computing Environments

Chapter 1 Cloud Computing Concepts 1

                Virtualization 1

                                Virtualization Types 2

                                Server Virtualization 3

                                Storage Virtualization 5

                                Network Virtualization 6

                                Service Virtualization 8

                                Virtualization Management 8

                Cloud Computing 9

                                Service Models 12

                                Cloud Adoption and Barriers 14

                                Return on Investment and Cloud Benefits 15

Chapter 2 Cloud Design Patterns and Use Cases 19

                Typical Design Patterns and Use Cases 19

                                Design Patterns 20

                                Cloud Use Cases 24

                Deployment Models 26

                IaaS as a Foundation 28

                Cloud Consumer Operating Model 31

Chapter 3 Data Center Architecture and Technologies 35

                Architecture 35

                Architectural Building Blocks of a Data Center 38

                                Industry Direction and Operational and Technical Phasing 40

                                Current Barriers to Cloud/Utility Computing/ITaaS 42

                                Phase 1: The Adoption of a Broad IP WAN That Is Highly Available 44

                                 Phase 2: Executing on a Virtualization Strategy for Server, Storage,Networking, and Networking Services 45

                                Phase 3: Service Automation 46

                                Phase 4: Utility Computing Model 47

                                Phase 5: Market 49

                Design Evolution in the Data Center 49

                                Introducing Virtual PortChannel (vPC) 51

                                Introducing Layer 2 Multi-Pathing (L2MP) 51

                                Network Services and Fabric Evolution in the Data Center 53

                                1. Virtualization of Data Center Network I/O 53

                                2. Virtualization of Network Services 56

                                Multitenancy in the Data Center 57

                Service Assurance 60

                Evolution of the Services Platform 63

Chapter 4 IT Services 69

                Classification of IT Services and Information 69

                                Risk Assessment and Classification of Information 70

                                Governance, Risk, and Compliance in the Enterprise 72

                                Governance 72

                                ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) 73

                                Risk 74

                                ISO 27001 74

                                Compliance 76

                                Assessment and Classification of Services 77

                Four Cornerstones of Cloud Economics 83

Chapter 5 The Cisco Cloud Strategy 87

                A Brief History of IT Service Delivery 87

                                Market and Technology Development 90

                                Information Growth and Complexity 90

                The Cisco Cloud Strategy: An Overview 92

                                Technology and Products 94

                                Unified Network Services 95

                                Virtual Extensible Local-Area Network 97

                                Data Center Interconnect Evolution 98

                                Enabling Machine Mobility Across Layer 3 Boundaries 100

                                Policy Management of the Data Center Network and Services 103

                                Systems, Platforms, and Services 106

                                The Cisco Unified Service Delivery Platform 106

                                Cisco Virtual Multi-Tenant Data Center 107

                                Cisco Intelligent Automation for Cloud 110

                                Open Source Projects 111

                Infrastructure Evolution to Support Cloud Services 113

                                Intelligent Cloud Platform 114

                                Cisco Network Positioning System 114

                                Evolution Toward Hybrid and Community Clouds 115

Part II Managing Cloud Services

Chapter 6 Cloud Management Reference Architecture 117

                Standards 117

                TMF eTOM 118

                Information Technology Infrastructure Library 121

                                ITIL Version 2 122

                                ITIL Version 3 123

                                Service Strategy 125

                                Service Design 125

                                Service Transition 125

                                Service Operation 126

                                Continuous Service Improvement 126

                                Comparison of ITIL and TMF eTOM 126

                ITU-T TMN 129

                Building Cloud Models Using Standards 133

                                Cloud Reference Architecture: Process Model 133

                                Cloud Framework and Management Model 134

                                Application/Service Layer 136

                                Resource Control Layer 136

                                Resource-Abstracted Virtualization Layer 136

                                Physical Resource Layer 137

                                Management Reference Architecture 137

                Integration of Management Systems/Functions 138

                                Cloud Provider Challenges 138

                                Service-Oriented Architecture 139

                                Integration Enablers 139

Chapter 7 Service Fulfillment 143

                Cloud Fulfillment Using ITILV3 143

                                Service Strategy Phase 145

                                Cloud Architecture Assessment 145

                                Operations People, Processes, Products, and Partners (4Ps) 147

                                Demand Management 149

                                Financial Management and Business Impact 150

                                Risk Management 150

                                Service Design Phase 151

                                Service Catalog Management 151

                                Orchestration 153

                                Security 153

                                Network Configuration and Change Management 153

                                SLA 154

                                Billing and Chargeback 154

                                Service Transition Phase 154

                                Service Operate Phase 155

                                Service Desk (Function) 156

                                Incident Management 157

                                Problem Management 158

                                Service Fulfillment (Service Provisioning) 159

                                Event Management 159

                                Access Management 159

                                Cloud CSI (Optimization) Phase 160

                Cloud End-to-End Service Provisioning Flow 161

                Service Orchestration 164

                Cloud End-to-End Architecture Model 166

Chapter 8 Service Assurance 173

                Cloud Assurance Flow Using the ITIL Process 173

                                Service Strategy Phase 175

                                Architecture Assessment 175

                                Business Requirements 176

                                Demand Management 177

                                Service Design Phase 177

                                Availability Management 178

                                Capacity Management 179

                                Service-Level Management 182

                                Supplier Management 185

                                Service Continuity Management 186

                                Transition Phase 189

                                Operate Phase 189

                                CSI (Optimization) Phase 189

                Cloud End-to-End Monitoring Flow 190

                Service Assurance Architecture 192

                                Fault Management 194

                                Cisco Data Center Network Manager 195

                                Cisco UCS Manager 195

                                Cisco Fabric Manager System 195

                                Cisco Application Networking Manager 196

                                Cisco Info Center 196

                                Use Case(s) 197

                                Performance Management 199

                                Use Case 1: Measure Network Round Trip Time 201

                                Use Case 2: Validate RA 201

                                Use Case 3: Validate NetVoyant 203

                                Validate RA for NetFlow Data from Nexus 1000V 203

Chapter 9 Billing and Chargeback 207

                Billing and Chargeback Terminology 207

                                Billing 208

                                Chargeback 208

                                Rating and Charging 209

                                Billing Mediation 209

                                Pay-Per-Use 209

                Cloud Consumers and Providers 210

                                Cloud Consumers 210

                                Cloud Providers 211

                Cloud Services Billing Considerations 213

                                Infrastructure as a Service 214

                                Platform as a Service 214

                                Software as a Service 215

                Cloud Order-to-Cash Process Flow 216

                Billing and Charging Architecture 218

Part III Managing Cloud Resources

Chapter 10 Technical Building Blocks of IaaS 223

                IaaS Service Composition 223

                Developing and Offering Cloud Products 228

                                Provisioning and Activating Services 231

                Persisting Service Data 233

Chapter 11 Automating and Orchestration Resources 239

                On-Boarding Resources: Building the Cloud 239

                                Modeling Capabilities 245

                                Modeling Constraints 246

                                Resource-Aware Infrastructure 246

                Adding Services to the Cloud 248

                                Provisioning the Infrastructure Model 250

                                Provisioning the Organization and VDC 250

                                Creating the Network Container 251

                                Creating the Application 251

                                Workflow Design 252

                Creation and Placement Strategies 253

                Service Life Cycle Management 256

                                Incident and Problem Management 257

                                Event Management 257

                                Request Fulfillment 259

                                Access Management 259

                                Operations Management 260

                                The Cloud Service Desk 261

                                Continued Service Improvement 261

Chapter 12 Cloud Capacity Management 263

                Tetris and the Cloud 263

                Cloud Capacity Model 265

                                Network Model 267

                                Compute Model 268

                                Storage Model 269

                                Data Center Facilities Model 270

                                Cloud Platform Capacity Model 271

                Demand Forecasting 272

                Procurement in the Cloud 274

Chapter 13 Providing the Right Cloud User Experience 277

                The Cloud User Interface 277

                Providing User Self-Care 280

                Integration 284

                Providing an Open API 287

Chapter 14 Adopting Cloud from a Maturity Perspective 291

                Maturity Models 291

                A Cloud Maturity Model 292

                Using the Cloud Maturity Model 295

Appendix A Case Study: Cloud Providers - Hybrid Cloud 301

                Cisco Cloud Enablement Services 301

                Company Profile 303

                Business Goals 304

                Cloud Strategy 306

                Cloud Maturity 307

                IT Platform 308

                Cloud Reference Model 310

                Private Cloud Services 312

                Orchestration and Automation Transition Architecture 314

                Telco Solution 317

                Solution 317

                                Network Architecture 317

                                Orchestration Architecture 320

                Out-of-the-Box Services 322

                Diggit Service Requirements 325

Appendix B Terms and Acronyms 327

TOC, 9781587204340, 11/8/2011



Venkata (Josh) Josyula, Ph.D., CCIE No. 13518, is a distinguished services engineer (DSE) and lead solutions architect in Cisco Services Technology Group (CSTG). He has more than 25 years of diverse experience in network management for telecommunications and IP in a variety of positions, including systems engineering, technical marketing, consulting, customer management, and deployment.


Josh has been with Cisco for 11 years and, prior to that, worked at Bell Laboratories as a distinguished engineer. Josh has written and/or contributed to key ITU-T network management documents and served as advisory director for the TMF board. Josh has published more than 60 technical papers, reports, articles, and books and is frequently called upon by Cisco customers and internal Cisco engineers around the world for advice and presentations and to perform OSS assessment on OSS/BSS architecture and products.


Malcolm Orr (B.S.) is an enterprise architect within the Cisco Services Division. Malcolm focuses on advising telecommunication companies and large enterprise clients on how to architect, build, and operate NGN and cloud platforms. Malcolm has more than 18 years in the IT industry, of which the past 5 years he has spent at Cisco involved in architecting and delivering complex solutions to various clients. He currently is the lead architect for a number of Tier 1 public cloud projects within Cisco. Prior to joining Cisco, Malcolm was a principal consultant at AMDOCS, working on the BT 21CN transformation, and he was one of the founders and the technical director of Harbrook Consultants, a consulting firm specializing in network and system management.


Greg Page (B.A. (Hons.)) is a solutions architect for Cisco Systems within the presales Data Center architecture team. Greg has been working in the IT industry for 16 years (the last 11 with Cisco Systems) in a variety of technical consulting roles specializing in data center architecture and technology in addition to service provider security (CISSP #77673).