CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

Wendell Odom  
Total pages
July 2016
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CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

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CCNA 200-301 Official Cert Guide, Volume 2
1 December 2019 51.10


Trust the best-selling Official Cert Guide series from Cisco Press to help you learn, prepare, and practice for exam success. They are built with the objective of providing assessment, review, and practice to help ensure you are fully prepared for your certification exam.

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes open each chapter and enable you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Exam topic lists make referencing easy. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly.

·    Master Cisco CCNA ICND2 200-105 exam topics

·    Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes

·    Review key concepts with exam preparation tasks

·    Practice with realistic exam questions on the CD-ROM

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide from Cisco Press enables you to succeed on the exam the first time and is the only self-study resource approved by Cisco.

Best-selling author and expert instructor Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills.

This complete study package includes

·    A test-preparation routine proven to help you pass the exams

·    "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes, which enable you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section

·    Chapter-ending and part-ending exercises, which help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly

·    Troubleshooting sections, which help you master the complex scenarios you will face on the exam

·    The powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test software, complete with hundreds of well-reviewed, exam-realistic questions, customization options, and detailed performance reports

·    A free copy of the CCNA ICND2 200-105 Network Simulator Lite software, complete with meaningful lab exercises that help you hone your hands-on skills with the command-line interface for routers and switches

·    Links to a series of hands-on config labs developed by the author

·    Online interactive practice exercises that help you hone your knowledge

·    More than 50 minutes of video mentoring from the author

·    A final preparation chapter, which guides you through tools and resources to help you craft your review and test-taking strategies

·    Study plan suggestions and templates to help you organize and optimize your study time

Well regarded for its level of detail, study plans, assessment features, challenging review questions and exercises, video instruction, and hands-on labs, this official study guide helps you master the concepts and techniques that ensure your exam success.

This official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCNA ICND2 exam, including

·    Ethernet LANs

·    IPv4 routing protocols

·    Wide area networks

·    IPv4 services: ACLs and QoS

·    IPv4 routing and troubleshooting

·    IPv6

·    Network management, SDN, and cloud computing

Companion DVD

The DVD contains more than 300 unique practice exam questions, ICND2 Network Simulator Lite software, online practice exercises, and 55 minutes of video training.

Includes Exclusive Offers for up to 70% Off Practice Tests, Video Training, and Network Simulation Software

This volume is part of the Official Cert Guide series from Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed exam-preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears.

Also available from Cisco Press for CCNA study is the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. This digital-only certification preparation product combines an eBook with enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Test.

This integrated learning package

·    Enables you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams

·    Includes direct links from each question to detailed tutorials to help you understand the concepts behind the questions

·    Provides unique sets of exam-realistic practice questions

·    Tracks your performance and provides feedback on a module-by-module basis, laying out a complete assessment of your knowledge to help you focus your study where it is needed most

Pearson IT Certification Practice Test minimum system requirements:

Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 7, or Vista (SP2), Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5 Client; Pentium-class 1 GHz processor (or equivalent); 512 MB RAM; 650 MB disk space plus 50 MB for each downloaded practice exam; access to the Internet to register and download exam databases 

New to this Edition

Part 1: Basically, this part re-organizes the old part 1’s three large chapters into four chapter, plus adds two new chapters per the exam topics. The re-org uses the prior edition’s 2 beefy STP chapters and 1 beefy troubleshooting chapter, plus Exam Updates appendix material about RSTP, and re-organizes that same material into 4 chapters. For the two new chapters in this part, one chapter repeats an ICND1 (VLANs and trunking), with one brand-new chapter for several small new topics included in the new blueprint.


Part 2, IPv4 Routing Protocols (formerly part 3): This part has two OSPF chapters, two EIGRP chapters, one troubleshooting chapter, and one new chapter on eBGP. OSPF expands from one chapter to two for this edition because the former exams split OSPF between ICND1 and ICND2; now all of OSPF sits inside ICND2. EIGRP keeps its same two chapters, and the same troubleshooting routing protocols chapter remains. Finally, this part closes with a totally new chapter per new exam topics: eBGP.


Part 3, WAN, has about 50% content from the old edition, but with much reorganization. Notably, Frame Relay, a mainstay since CCNA R&S began, is completely gone from mention in the exam topics; those chapters are slated for copy to DVD appendices just in case they are needed or useful to some readers. The three chapters in this part strike a new balance on covering the current exam topics plus keeping some useful related topics.


Part 4, ACLs and QoS, is a new part for ICND2 book, with two chapters moved from ICND1, and two completely new chapters. Cisco now splits ACLs across both exams, so the first two chapters in this part are replicas of that duplicated content from ICND1 chapters. This part includes a 3rd ACL chapter here (and not in ICND1) covers the ACL topics unique to the ICND2 exam topics. Finally, a totally new chapter on QoS is included in this part.


Part 5, IPv4 Routing Services and Troubleshooting, is basically a catch-all for all remaining IPv4 topics. It has a 75% new chapter on routing over LANs, a re-worked version of the former ICND2 Chapter 6 on FHRP, and closes with a chapter on IPv4 troubleshooting chapters (formerly ICND2 chapter 5). Note that this particular troubleshooting chapter is also found in the ICND1 book because of exam topic overlap.


Part 6, IPv6, picks up three chapters, mostly unchanged, from the former edition. Two are almost literal pickups, with the OSPF for IPv6 (OSPFv3) chapter requiring some minor changes. Also in this 4-chapter part is a totally new chapter on IPv6 ACLs.


Part 7 covers mostly new material. Cisco moved most management protocols from ICND2 to ICND1, but left a few, and added a few, to ICND2. The first chapter in this part covers those management protocols. The second chapter covers two new exam topics, one about cloud computing, and one about SDN. Depending on how the writing goes, I may expand this chapter from one chapter to two.


Part 8 holds the Final prep chapter only.


Table of Contents

Introduction xxxv

Your Study Plan 2

Part I Ethernet LANs

Chapter 1 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Virtual LAN Concepts

Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking

Forwarding Data Between VLANs

VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification

Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface

VLAN Trunking Protocol

VLAN Trunking Configuration

Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones

Chapter Review

Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)

The Need for Spanning Tree

What IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Does

How Spanning Tree Works

Influencing and Changing the STP Topology

Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w) Concepts

Comparing STP and RSTP

RSTP and the Alternate (Root) Port Role

RSTP States and Processes

RSTP and the Backup (Designated) Port Role

RSTP Port Types

Optional STP Features



BPDU Guard

Chapter Review

Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Implementing STP

Setting the STP Mode

Connecting STP Concepts to STP Configuration Options

Verifying STP Operation

Configuring STP Port Costs

Configuring Priority to Influence the Root Election

Implementing Optional STP Features

Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard

Configuring EtherChannel

Implementing RSTP

Identifying the STP Mode on a Catalyst Switch

RSTP Port Roles

RSTP Port States

RSTP Port Types

Chapter Review

Chapter 4 LAN Troubleshooting

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Troubleshooting STP

Determining the Root Switch

Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches

Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment

STP Convergence

Troubleshooting Layer 2 EtherChannel

Incorrect Options on the channel-group Command

Configuration Checks Before Adding Interfaces to EtherChannels

Analyzing the Switch Data Plane Forwarding

Predicting STP Impact on MAC Tables

Predicting EtherChannel Impact on MAC Tables

Choosing the VLAN of Incoming Frames

Troubleshooting VLANs and VLAN Trunks

Access VLAN Configuration Incorrect

Access VLANs Undefined or Disabled

Mismatched Trunking Operational States

Mismatched Supported VLAN List on Trunks

Mismatched Native VLAN on a Trunk

Chapter Review

Chapter 5 VLAN Trunking Protocol

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Concepts

Basic VTP Operation

VTP Version 1 Versus Version 2

VTP Pruning

Summary of VTP Features

VTP Configuration and Verification

Using VTP: Configuring Servers and Clients

Verifying Switches Synchronized Databases

Storing the VTP and Related Configuration

Avoiding Using VTP

VTP Troubleshooting

Determining Why VTP Is Not Synchronizing

Common Rejections When Configuring VTP

Problems When Adding Switches to a Network

Chapter Review

Chapter 6 Miscellaneous LAN Topics

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Securing Access with IEEE 802.1x

AAA Authentication

AAA Login Process

TACACS+ and RADIUS Protocols

AAA Configuration Examples

DHCP Snooping

DHCP Snooping Basics

An Example DHCP-based Attack

How DHCP Snooping Works

Summarizing DHCP Snooping Features

Switch Stacking and Chassis Aggregation

Traditional Access Switching Without Stacking

Switch Stacking of Access Layer Switches

Switch Stack Operation as a Single Logical Switch

Cisco FlexStack and FlexStack-Plus

Chassis Aggregation

Chapter Review

Part I Review

Part II IPv4 Routing Protocols

Chapter 7 Understanding OSPF Concepts

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features

Routing Protocol Functions

Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols

Comparing IGPs

Administrative Distance

OSPF Concepts and Operation

OSPF Overview

Becoming OSPF Neighbors

Exchanging the LSDB Between Neighbors

Calculating the Best Routes with SPF

OSPF Area Design

OSPF Areas

How Areas Reduce SPF Calculation Time

OSPF Area Design Advantages

Chapter Review

Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Implementing Single-Area OSPFv2

OSPF Single-Area Configuration

Matching with the OSPF network Command

Verifying OSPFv2 Single Area

Configuring the OSPF Router ID

OSPF Passive Interfaces

Implementing Multiarea OSPFv2

Single-Area Configurations

Multiarea Configuration

Verifying the Multiarea Configuration

Additional OSPF Features

OSPF Default Routes

OSPF Metrics (Cost)

OSPF Load Balancing

OSPFv2 Interface Configuration

Chapter Review

Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

EIGRP and Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Introduction to EIGRP

Basic Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features

EIGRP as an Advanced DV Protocol

EIGRP Concepts and Operation

EIGRP Neighbors

Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information

Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table

EIGRP Convergence

Chapter Review

Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Core EIGRP Configuration and Verification

EIGRP Configuration

Configuring EIGRP Using a Wildcard Mask

Verifying EIGRP Core Features

EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors

Viewing the EIGRP Topology Table

Examining the Metric Components

Other EIGRP Configuration Settings

Load Balancing Across Multiple EIGRP Routes

Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation

Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks

Chapter Review

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems

Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol

EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting

OSPF Interface Troubleshooting

Neighbor Relationships

EIGRP Neighbor Verification Checks

EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting Example

OSPF Neighbor Troubleshooting

Other OSPF Issues

Chapter Review

Chapter 12 Implementing External BGP

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

BGP Concepts

Advertising Routes with BGP

Internal and External BGP

Choosing the Best Routes with BGP

eBGP and the Internet Edge

eBGP Configuration and Verification

BGP Configuration Concepts

Configuring eBGP Neighbors Using Link Addresses

Injecting BGP Table Entries with the network Command

Learning a Default Route from the ISP

Chapter Review

Part II Review

Part III Wide-Area Networks

Chapter 13 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Leased-Line WANs with HDLC

Layer 1 Leased Lines

Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC

Configuring HDLC

Leased-Line WANs with PPP

PPP Concepts

Implementing PPP

Implementing PPP CHAP

Implementing PPP PAP

Implementing Multilink PPP

Troubleshooting Serial Links

Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems

Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems

Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems

Chapter Review

Chapter 14 Private WANs with Ethernet and MPLS

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Metro Ethernet

Metro Ethernet Physical Design and Topology

Ethernet WAN Services and Topologies

Layer 3 Design Using Metro Ethernet

Ethernet Virtual Circuit Bandwidth Profiles

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

MPLS VPN Physical Design and Topology

MPLS and Quality of Service

Layer 3 with MPLS VPN

Chapter Review

Chapter 15 Private WANs with Internet VPN

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Internet Access and Internet VPN Fundamentals

Internet Access

Internet VPN Fundamentals

GRE Tunnels and DMVPN

GRE Tunnel Concepts

Configuring GRE Tunnels

Verifying a GRE Tunnel

Troubleshooting GRE Tunnels

Multipoint Internet VPNs Using DMVPN

PPP over Ethernet

PPPoE Concepts

PPPoE Configuration

PPPoE Verification

PPPoE Troubleshooting

Chapter Review

Part III Review

Part IV IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS

Chapter 16 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

IPv4 Access Control List Basics

ACL Location and Direction

Matching Packets

Taking Action When a Match Occurs

Types of IP ACLs

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs

List Logic with IP ACLs

Matching Logic and Command Syntax

Implementing Standard IP ACLs

Troubleshooting and Verification Tips

Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs

Practice Building access-list Commands

Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range

Chapter Review

Chapter 17 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists

Matching the Protocol, Source IP, and Destination IP

Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers

Extended IP ACL Configuration

Practice Building access-list Commands

Named ACLs and ACL Editing

Named IP Access Lists

Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers

Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration

ACL Implementation Considerations

Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs

Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network

ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets

Chapter Review

Chapter 18 Quality of Service (QoS)

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Introduction to QoS

QoS: Managing Bandwidth, Delay, Jitter, and Loss

Types of Traffic

QoS as Mentioned in This Book

QoS on Switches and Routers

Classification and Marking

Classification Basics

Matching (Classification) Basics

Classification on Routers with ACLs and NBAR

Marking IP DSCP and Ethernet CoS

Defining Trust Boundaries

DiffServ Suggested Marking Values

Congestion Management (Queuing)

Round Robin Scheduling (Prioritization)

Low Latency Queuing

A Prioritization Strategy for Data, Voice, and Video

Shaping and Policing



Congestion Avoidance

TCP Windowing Basics

Congestion Avoidance Tools

Chapter Review

Part IV Review

Part V IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting

Chapter 19 IPv4 Routing in the LAN

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

VLAN Routing with Router 802.1Q Trunks

Configuring ROAS

Verifying ROAS

Troubleshooting ROAS

VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch SVIs

Configuring Routing Using Switch SVIs

Verifying Routing with SVIs

Troubleshooting Routing with SVIs

VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch Routed Ports

Implementing Routed Interfaces on Switches

Implementing Layer 3 EtherChannels

Troubleshooting Layer 3 EtherChannels

Chapter Review

Chapter 20 Implementing HSRP for First-Hop Routing

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

FHRP and HSRP Concepts

The Need for Redundancy in Networks

The Need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol

The Three Solutions for First-Hop Redundancy

HSRP Concepts

Implementing HSRP

Configuring and Verifying Basic HSRP

HSRP Active Role with Priority and Preemption

HSRP Versions

Troubleshooting HSRP

Checking HSRP Configuration

Symptoms of HSRP Misconfiguration

Chapter Review

Chapter 21 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Problems Between the Host and the Default Router

Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings

Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration

Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers

IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route

Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans

Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics

Chapter Review

Part V Review

Part VI IPv6

Chapter 22 IPv6 Routing Operation and Troubleshooting

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Normal IPv6 Operation

Unicast IPv6 Addresses and IPv6 Subnetting

Assigning Addresses to Hosts

Router Address and Static Route Configuration

Verifying IPv6 Connectivity

Troubleshooting IPv6

Pings from the Host Work Only in Some Cases

Pings Fail from a Host to Its Default Router

Problems Using Any Function That Requires DNS

Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: Stateful DHCP Issues

Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: SLAAC Issues

Traceroute Shows Some Hops, But Fails

Routing Looks Good, But Traceroute Still Fails

Chapter Review

Chapter 23 Implementing OSPF for IPv6

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

OSPFv3 for IPv6 Concepts

IPv6 Routing Protocol Versions and Protocols

Two Options for Implementing Dual Stack with OSPF

OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Internals

OSPFv3 Configuration

Basic OSPFv3 Configuration

Other OSPFv3 Configuration Settings

OSPFv3 Verification and Troubleshooting

OSPFv3 Interfaces

OSPFv3 Neighbors


The Issue of IPv6 MTU

OSPFv3 Metrics and IPv6 Routes

Chapter Review

Chapter 24 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration

EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Basics

EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Example

Other EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Settings

EIGRP for IPv6 Verification and Troubleshooting

EIGRP for IPv6 Interfaces

EIGRP for IPv6 Neighbors

EIGRP for IPv6 Topology Database

EIGRP for IPv6 Routes

Chapter Review

Chapter 25 IPv6 Access Control Lists

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

IPv6 Access Control List Basics

Similarities and Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs

ACL Location and Direction

IPv6 Filtering Policies

ICMPv6 Filtering Caution

Capabilities of IPv6 ACLs

Limitations of IPv6 ACLs

Configuring Standard IPv6 ACLs

Configuring Extended IPv6 ACLs

Examples of Extended IPv6 ACLs

Practice Building ipv6 access-list Commands

Other IPv6 ACL Topics

Implicit IPv6 ACL Rules

IPv6 Management Control ACLs

Chapter Review

Part VI Review

Part VII Miscellaneous

Chapter 26 Network Management

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Simple Network Management Protocol

SNMP Concepts

Implementing SNMP Version 2c

Implementing SNMP Version 3

IP Service Level Agreement

An Overview of IP SLA

Basic IP SLA ICMP-Echo Configuration

Troubleshooting Using IP SLA Counters

Troubleshooting Using IP SLA History


SPAN Concepts

Configuring Local SPAN

SPAN Session Parameters for Troubleshooting

Chapter Review

Chapter 27 Cloud Computing

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

Cloud Computing Concepts

Server Virtualization

Cloud Computing Services

Cloud and the “As a Service” Model

WAN Traffic Paths to Reach Cloud Services

Enterprise WAN Connections to Public Cloud

A Scenario: Branch Offices and the Public Cloud

Virtual Network Functions and Services

Virtual Network Functions: Firewalls and Routers

DNS Services

Address Assignment Services and DHCP


Chapter Review

Chapter 28 SDN and Network Programmability

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

Foundation Topics

SDN and Network Programmability Basics

The Data, Control, and Management Planes

Controllers and Network Architecture

SDN Architecture Summary

Examples of Network Programmability and SDN

Open SDN and OpenFlow

The Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure

The Cisco APIC Enterprise Module

Comparing the Three Examples

Cisco APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis Application

APIC-EM Path Trace App

APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis Tool Timing and Exam Topic

Chapter Review

Part VII Review

Part VIII Final Prep

Chapter 29 Final Review

Advice About the Exam Event

Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial

Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions

A Suggested Time-Check Method

Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions

Exam-Day Advice

Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail

Exam Review

Take Practice Exams

Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review

Practice Hands-On CLI Skills

Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores)

Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass

Other Study Tasks

Final Thoughts

Part IX Appendixes

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables

Appendix B CCNA ICND2 200-105 Exam Updates



DVD Appendixes

Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes

Appendix D Practice for Chapter 16: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists

Appendix E Mind Map Solutions

Appendix F Study Planner

Appendix G Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2

Appendix H Understanding Frame Relay Concepts

Appendix I Implementing Frame Relay

Appendix J IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools

Appendix K Topics from Previous Editions

Appendix L Exam Topic Cross Reference


9781587205798 TOC 6/1/2016


Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624 (Emeritus), has been in the networking industry since 1981. He has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, instructor, and course developer; he currently works writing and creating certification study tools. This book is his 27th edition of some product for Pearson, and he is the author of all editions of the CCNA R&S and CCENT Cert Guides from Cisco Press. He has written books about topics from networking basics, certification guides throughout the years for CCENT, CCNA R&S, CCNA DC, CCNP ROUTE, CCNP QoS, and CCIE R&S. He helped develop the popular Pearson Network Simulator. He maintains study tools, links to his blogs, and other resources at