Java Card? Technology for Smart Cards: Architecture and Programmer's Guide

Prentice Hall
Zhiqun Chen  
Total pages
June 2000
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Java Card? Technology for Smart Cards: Architecture and Programmer's Guide
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Table of Contents




1. From the Beginning.

Smart Cards.

Brief History.



Challenges in the Development of Smart Card Applications.

Applying Java to Smart Cards.

Benefits of Java Card Technology.

Brief History of Java Card Technology.

2. Smart Card Basics.

Overview of Smart Cards.

Basic Card Types.

Memory Cards versus Microprocessor Cards.

Contact Cards versus Contactless Cards.

Smart Card Hardware.

Smart Card Contact Points.

Smart Card Central Processing Unit.

Smart Card Coprocessors.

Smart Card Memory System.

Smart Card Communication.

Card Acceptance Device and Host Applications.

Smart Card Communication Model.

APDU Protocol.

TPDU Protocol.


Smart Card Operating Systems.

Smart Card File Systems.

Master File.

Dedicated File.

Elementary File.

Smart Card Systems.

Smart Card Standards and Specifications.

ISO 7816 Standards.



Open Platform.

OpenCard Framework.



3. Java Card Technology Overview.

Architecture Overview.

Java Card Language Subset.

Java Card Virtual Machine.

CAP File and Export File.

Java Card Converter.

Java Card Interpreter.

Java Card Installer and Off-Card Installation Program.

Java Card Runtime Environment.

JCRE Lifetime.

How Does the JCRE Operate during a CAD Session?

Java Card Runtime Features.

Java Card APIs.

java.lang Package.

javacard.framework Package. Package.

javacardx.crypto Package.

Java Card Applets.

Package and Applet Naming Convention.

Applet Development Process.

Applet Installation.

ROM Applets.

Preissuance or Postissuance Applets.

Postissuance Applet Installation.

Error Recovery during Applet Installation.

Installation Constraints.

4. Java Card Objects.

Java Card Memory Model.

Persistent Objects.

Transient Objects.

Properties of Transient Objects.

Transient Object Types.

Creating Transient Objects.

Querying Transient Objects.

A Few Words about Object Creation and Deletion.

5. Atomicity and Transactions.


Block Data Updates in an Array.


Commit Transaction.

Abort Transaction.

Nested Transaction.

Commit Capacity.


Local Variables and Transient Objects during a Transaction.

6. Java Card Exceptions and Exception Handling.

Exceptions in the java.lang Package.

Java Card Exceptions.

Java Card Exception Reason Code.

Throwing an Exception in the Java Card Platform.



7. Java Card Applets.

Applet Overview.

Applet Installation and Execution.

Applet Communication.

Class javacard.framework.Applet.

install Method.

Creating Objects in the Applet's Constructor.

Registering the Applet Instance with the JCRE.

Processing the Installation Parameters.

Further Applet Initialization.

select Method.

SELECT APDU Format and Processing.

Default Applet.

deselect Method.

process Method.

Other Methods in the Class javacard.framework.Applet.

8. Working with APDUs.

APDU Class.

APDU Object.

APDU Buffer Size.

Interface ISO7816.

Working with APDUs in Applets.

Retrieve the APDU Buffer.

Examine the Command APDU Header.

Receive APDU Command Data.

Process the APDU Command and Generate the Response Data.

Return APDU Response Data.

Return the Status Word.

Protocol-Specific APDU Processing.

Method getProtocol.

Method getInBlockSize.

Method getOutBlockSize.

Method setOutgoingNoChaining.

Method getNAD.

Method waitExtension.


9. Applet Firewall and Object Sharing.

Applet Firewall.


Object Ownership.

Object Access.

Transient Array and Context.

Static Fields and Methods.

Object Sharing across Contexts.

Context Switch.

JCRE Privileges.

JCRE Entry Point Objects.

Global Arrays.

Object Shareable Interface Mechanism.

10. Programming Cryptography.

Quick Tour of Cryptography.

Encryption and Decryption.

Message Digest.

Digital Signature.

Random Data.

Cryptographic Practice in Smart Card Applications.

Ensuring Application Security.

Functioning as a Secure Token.


Java Card Cryptography APIs.

Design Principles.


Package Structure.

Code Examples.

Compute a Message Digest.

Build a Cryptographic Key.

Sign and Verify a Signature.

Encrypt and Decrypt Data.

Generate Random Data.

11. Java Card Platform Security.

Java Card Platform Security Features.

Java Language Security.

Additional Security Features of the Java Card Platform.

Java Card Platform Security Mechanisms.

Compile-Time Checking.

Class File Verification and Subset Checking.

CAP File and Export File Verification.

Installation Checking.

Cryptographically Enforced Chain Trust.

Runtime Security Enforcement.

Java Card Cryptographic Support.

Applet Security.


12. Step-by-Step Applet Development Guide.

Design the Applet.

Specify the Functions of the Applet.

Specify AIDs for the Applet.

Define the Class Structure and Method Functions of the Applet.

Define the Interface between the Applet and Its Host Application.

Construct the Applet Code.

Wallet Applet Code.

Implement Error Checking.

What's the Next Step?

13. Applet Optimization.

Optimizing an Applet's Overall Design.

On-Card Execution Time.

Method Invocations.

Creating Objects in Applets.

Reusing Objects.

Eliminating Redundant Code.

Accessing Arrays.

The switch Statement versus the if-else Statement.

Arithmetic Statements.

Optimizing Variables in Applets.

14. Working with int Data Type.

32-Bit Arithmetic Operations.

Array Size and Array Index.

Storing and Computing int Values.


4 Appendices.

A. Java Card Language Subset.

B. Java Card Application Programming Interface.


Bibliography. 0201703297T04062001

Back Cover

Java Card™ technology provides a secure, vendor-independent, ubiquitous Java™ platform for smart cards and other memory constrained devices. It opens the smart card marketplace to third-party application development and enables programmers to develop smart card applications for a wide variety of vendors' products.

This book is the comprehensive guide to developing applications with Java Card technology. It introduces you to the Java Card platform and features detailed discussions of programming concepts. It also provides a step-by-step Java Card applet development guide to get you up and running.

  • Specific topics covered include:
  • Smart card basics
  • Java Card virtual machine
  • Persistent and transient objects
  • Atomicity and transactions
  • Handling APDUs
  • Applet firewall and object sharing
  • Java Card platform security
  • A step-by-step applet development guide
  • Applet optimization guidelines
  • A comprehensive reference to Java Card APIs

With Java Card technology, smart card programming will finally enter the mainstream of application development. This book provides the authoritative and practical information you need to enter this rapidly growing arena.



Zhiqun Chen is on the engineering team that designed and implemented Java Card APIs and is currently working on Sun's Java Card virtual machine reference implementation. She has extensive experience writing financial applets with Java Card technology and was involved in developing Open Platform card applications, Mondex terminal, and server applications for Java Electronic Commerce Framework.™