CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Official Cert Guide, Volume 2

Cisco Press
Narbik Kocharians / Terry Vinson  
Total pages
December 2014
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CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Official Cert Guide, Volume 2


The second of two volumes, this is Cisco's official, complete self-study resource for the BGP, QoS, IP multicast, security, WANs, and MPLS areas of the new CCIE Routing and Switching 5.0 exam. Designed for experienced networking professionals, it covers every objective in these areas concisely and logically, with extensive teaching features designed to help retention and develop deeper insight.


  • Straight from Cisco: the official assessment, review, and practice for the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam
  • Second of two volumes: Fully covers the BGP, QoS, IP multicast, security, WANs, and MPLS areas of the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam
  • Extensively updated to reflect the latest exam topics
  • DVD contains realistic practice tests as well as a new Study Plan Template to help students organize and optimize study time
  • Extensive, proven features help students review more efficiently
  • New study features include innovative Part Reviews with mind mapping exercises that help students consolidate their knowledge of concepts from multiple chapters

New to this Edition

Fully updated to reflect the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvii
Part I IP BGP Routing
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of BGP Operations 3
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 3
Foundation Topics 8
Building BGP Neighbor Relationships 9
    Internal BGP Neighbors 10
    External BGP Neighbors 13
    Checks Before Becoming BGP Neighbors 14
    BGP Messages and Neighbor States 15
        BGP Message Types 16
        Purposefully Resetting BGP Peer Connections 16
Building the BGP Table 18
    Injecting Routes/Prefixes into the BGP Table 18
        BGP network Command 18
        Redistributing from an IGP, Static, or Connected Route 21
        Impact of Auto-Summary on Redistributed Routes and the network Command 23
        Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute 25
        Adding Default Routes to BGP 29
        ORIGIN Path Attribute 30
        Advertising BGP Routes to Neighbors 31
        BGP Update Message 31
        Determining the Contents of Updates 32
        Example: Impact of the Decision Process and NEXT_HOP on BGP Updates 34
        Summary of Rules for Routes Advertised in BGP Updates 40
Building the IP Routing Table 40
    Adding eBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 40
    Backdoor Routes 41
    Adding iBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 42
        Using Sync and Redistributing Routes 44
        Disabling Sync and Using BGP on All Routers in an AS 46
        Confederations 47
        Configuring Confederations 49
        Route Reflectors 52
Multiprotocol BGP 57
    Configuration of Multiprotocol BGP 58
Foundation Summary 63
Memory Builders 66
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 66
    Definitions 67
    Further Reading 67
Chapter 2 BGP Routing Policies 69
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 69
Foundation Topics 75
Route Filtering and Route Summarization 75
    Filtering BGP Updates Based on NLRI 76
        Route Map Rules for NLRI Filtering 79
        Soft Reconfiguration 79
        Comparing BGP Prefix Lists, Distribute Lists, and Route Maps 80
    Filtering Subnets of a Summary Using the aggregate-address Command 81
    Filtering BGP Updates by Matching the AS_PATH PA 82
        The BGP AS_PATH and AS_PATH Segment Types 82
        Using Regular Expressions to Match AS_PATH 84
        Example: Matching AS_PATHs Using AS_PATH Filters 87
        Matching AS_SET and AS_CONFED_SEQ 91
BGP Path Attributes and the BGP Decision Process 93
    Generic Terms and Characteristics of BGP PAs 93
    The BGP Decision Process 95
        Clarifications of the BGP Decision Process 96
        Three Final Tiebreaker Steps in the BGP Decision Process 96
        Adding Multiple BGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 97
        Mnemonics for Memorizing the Decision Process 98
Configuring BGP Policies 99
    Background: BGP PAs and Features Used by Routing Policies 99
    Step 1: NEXT_HOP Reachable 101
    Step 2: Administrative Weight 101
    Step 3: Highest Local Preference (LOCAL_PREF) 104
    Step 4: Choose Between Locally Injected Routes Based on ORIGIN PA 107
    Step 5: Shortest AS_PATH 107
        Removing Private ASNs 108
        AS_PATH Prepending and Route Aggregation 109
    Step 6: Best ORIGIN PA 112
    Step 7: Smallest Multi-Exit Discriminator 112
        Configuring MED: Single Adjacent AS 114
        Configuring MED: Multiple Adjacent Autonomous Systems 115
        The Scope of MED 115
    Step 8: Prefer Neighbor Type eBGP over iBGP 116
    Step 9: Smallest IGP Metric to the NEXT_HOP 116
    The maximum-paths Command and BGP Decision Process Tiebreakers 116
    Step 10: Lowest BGP Router ID of Advertising Router (with One Exception) 117
    Step 11: Lowest Neighbor ID 117
        The BGP maximum-paths Command 118
BGP Communities 119
    Matching COMMUNITY with Community Lists 123
    Removing COMMUNITY Values 124
    Filtering NLRIs Using Special COMMUNITY Values 125
Fast Convergence Enhancements 126
    Fast External Neighbor Loss Detection 127
    Internal Neighbor Loss Detection 127
    EBGP Fast Session Deactivation 128
Foundation Summary 129
Memory Builders 132
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 133
    Definitions 133
    Further Reading 133
Part II QoS
Chapter 3 Classification and Marking 135
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 135
Foundation Topics 139
Fields That Can Be Marked for QoS Purposes 139
    IP Precedence and DSCP Compared 139
    DSCP Settings and Terminology 140
        Class Selector PHB and DSCP Values 140
        Assured Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 141
        Expedited Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 142
    Non-IP Header Marking Fields 143
        Ethernet LAN Class of Service 143
        WAN Marking Fields 143
        Locations for Marking and Matching 144
Cisco Modular QoS CLI 145
    Mechanics of MQC 145
    Classification Using Class Maps 146
        Using Multiple match Commands 147
        Classification Using NBAR 149
Classification and Marking Tools 149
    Class-Based Marking (CB Marking) Configuration 150
        CB Marking Example 151
        CB Marking of CoS and DSCP 155
        Network-Based Application Recognition 156
    CB Marking Design Choices 158
    Marking Using Policers 158
    QoS Pre-Classification 159
    Policy Routing for Marking 160
AutoQoS 160
    AutoQoS for VoIP 161
        AutoQoS VoIP on Switches 161
        AutoQoS VoIP on Routers 162
        Verifying AutoQoS VoIP 163
    AutoQoS for the Enterprise 163
        Discovering Traffic for AutoQoS Enterprise 163
        Generating the AutoQoS Configuration 164
        Verifying AutoQoS for the Enterprise 164
Foundation Summary 165
Memory Builders 167
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 167
    Definitions 167
    Further Reading 168
Chapter 4 Congestion Management and Avoidance 171
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 171
Foundation Topics 175
Cisco Router Queuing Concepts 175
    Software Queues and Hardware Queues 175
    Queuing on Interfaces Versus Subinterfaces and Virtual Circuits 176
    Comparing Queuing Tools 176
Queuing Tools: CBWFQ and LLQ 177
    CBWFQ Basic Features and Configuration 178
    Defining and Limiting CBWFQ Bandwidth 180
    Low-Latency Queuing 182
    Defining and Limiting LLQ Bandwidth 184
    LLQ with More Than One Priority Queue 185
    Miscellaneous CBWFQ/LLQ Topics 186
    Queuing Summary 186
Weighted Random Early Detection 187
    How WRED Weights Packets 188
    WRED Configuration 189
Modified Deficit Round-Robin 190
LAN Switch Congestion Management and Avoidance 193
    Cisco Switch Ingress Queuing 193
        Creating a Priority Queue 193
        Cisco 3560 Congestion Avoidance 195
    Cisco 3560 Switch Egress Queuing 197
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 199
    RSVP Process Overview 200
    Configuring RSVP 201
    Using RSVP for Voice Calls 203
Foundation Summary 205
Memory Builders 205
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 205
    Definitions 205
    Further Reading 205
Chapter 5 Shaping, Policing, and Link Fragmentation 207
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 207
Foundation Topics 211
Traffic-Shaping Concepts 211
    Shaping Terminology 211
    Shaping with an Excess Burst 213
    Underlying Mechanics of Shaping 213
Generic Traffic Shaping 214
Class-Based Shaping 216
    Tuning Shaping for Voice Using LLQ and a Small Tc 218
    Configuring Shaping by Bandwidth Percent 221
    CB Shaping to a Peak Rate 222
    Adaptive Shaping 222
Policing Concepts and Configuration 222
    CB Policing Concepts 222
        Single-Rate, Two-Color Policing (One Bucket) 223
        Single-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 224
        Two-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 225
    Class-Based Policing Configuration 227
        Single-Rate, Three-Color Policing of All Traffic 227
        Policing a Subset of the Traffic 228
        CB Policing Defaults for Bc and Be 229
        Configuring Dual-Rate Policing 229
        Multi-Action Policing 229
        Policing by Percentage 230
    Committed Access Rate 231
Hierarchical Queuing Framework (HQF) 233
    Flow-Based Fair-Queuing Support in Class-Default 235
    Default Queuing Implementation for Class-Default 236
    Class-Default and Bandwidth 236
    Default Queuing Implementation for Shape Class 236
    Policy Map and Interface Bandwidth 236
    Per-Flow Queue Limit in Fair Queue 236
    Oversubscription Support for Multiple Policies on Logical Interfaces 236
    Shaping on a GRE Tunnel 237
    Nested Policy and Reference Bandwidth for Child-Policy 237
    Handling Traffic Congestion on an Interface Configured with Policy Map 237
QoS Troubleshooting and Commands 237
    Troubleshooting Slow Application Response 238
    Troubleshooting Voice and Video Problems 239
    Other QoS Troubleshooting Tips 240
    Approaches to Resolving QoS Issues 240
Foundation Summary 242
Memory Builders 243
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 243
    Definitions 243
    Further Reading 243
Part III Wide-Area Networks
Chapter 6 Wide-Area Networks 245
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 245
Foundation Topics 247
Layer 2 Protocols 247
    HDLC 247
    Point-to-Point Protocol 249
        PPP Link Control Protocol 250
        Basic LCP/PPP Configuration 251
        Multilink PPP 252
        MLP Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 254
        PPP Compression 255
        PPP Layer 2 Payload Compression 256
        Header Compression 256
    PPPoE 257
        Server Configuration 258
        Client Configuration 259
        Authentication 260
Ethernet WAN 262
    VPLS 262
    Metro-Ethernet 263
Foundation Summary 264
Memory Builders 265
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 265
    Definitions 265
    Further Reading 265
Part IV IP Multicast
Chapter 7 Introduction to IP Multicasting 267
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 267
Foundation Topics 270
Why Do You Need Multicasting? 270
    Problems with Unicast and Broadcast Methods 270
    How Multicasting Provides a Scalable and Manageable Solution 273
Multicast IP Addresses 276
    Multicast Address Range and Structure 276
    Well-Known Multicast Addresses 276
        Multicast Addresses for Permanent Groups 277
        Multicast Addresses for Source-Specific Multicast Applications and Protocols 278
        Multicast Addresses for GLOP Addressing 278
        Multicast Addresses for Private Multicast Domains 278
    Multicast Addresses for Transient Groups 278
    Summary of Multicast Address Ranges 279
    Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses 280
Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP 281
    Joining a Group 282
    Internet Group Management Protocol 282
    IGMP Version 2 283
        IGMPv2 Host Membership Query Functions 285
        IGMPv2 Host Membership Report Functions 286
        IGMPv2 Solicited Host Membership Report 286
        IGMPv2 Unsolicited Host Membership Report 288
        IGMPv2 Leave Group and Group-Specific Query Messages 289
        IGMPv2 Querier 291
    IGMPv2 Timers 292
    IGMP Version 3 292
IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Interoperability 294
    IGMPv2 Host and IGMPv1 Routers 294
    IGMPv1 Host and IGMPv2 Routers 294
Comparison of IGMPv1, IGMPv2, and IGMPv3 295
LAN Multicast Optimizations 296
    Cisco Group Management Protocol 296
    IGMP Snooping 303
    Router-Port Group Management Protocol 307
    IGMP Filtering 309
    IGMP Proxy 310
Foundation Summary 314
Memory Builders 314
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 314
    Definitions 315
    Further Reading 315
References in This Chapter 315
Chapter 8 IP Multicast Routing 317
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 317
Foundation Topics 321
Multicast Routing Basics 321
    Overview of Multicast Routing Protocols 322
        Multicast Forwarding Using Dense Mode 322
        Reverse Path Forwarding Check 323
        Multicast Forwarding Using Sparse Mode 325
    Multicast Scoping 327
        TTL Scoping 327
        Administrative Scoping 328
Dense-Mode Routing Protocols 329
    Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode 329
        Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages 329
        Source-Based Distribution Trees 330
        Prune Message 331
        PIM-DM: Reacting to a Failed Link 333
        Rules for Pruning 335
        Steady-State Operation and the State Refresh Message 337
        Graft Message 339
    LAN-Specific Issues with PIM-DM and PIM-SM 340
        Prune Override 340
        Assert Message 341
        Designated Router 343
        Summary of PIM-DM Messages 343
    Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol 344
    Multicast Open Shortest Path First 344
Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols 345
    Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode 345
        Similarities Between PIM-DM and PIM-SM 346
        Sources Sending Packets to the Rendezvous Point 346
        Joining the Shared Tree 348
        Completion of the Source Registration Process 350
        Shared Distribution Tree 352
        Steady-State Operation by Continuing to Send Joins 353
        Examining the RP’s Multicast Routing Table 354
        Shortest-Path Tree Switchover 355
        Pruning from the Shared Tree 357
    Dynamically Finding RPs and Using Redundant RPs 358
        Dynamically Finding the RP Using Auto-RP 359
        Dynamically Finding the RP Using BSR 363
        Anycast RP with MSDP 365
        Interdomain Multicast Routing with MSDP 367
        Summary: Finding the RP 369
    Bidirectional PIM 370
    Comparison of PIM-DM and PIM-SM 371
    Source-Specific Multicast 372
Implementing IPv6 Multicast PIM 373
    Designated Priority Manipulation 376
    PIM6 Hello Interval 377
    IPv6 Sparse-Mode Multicast 379
    IPv6 Static RP 379
    IPv6 BSR 381
    Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) 385
    Embedded RP 389
Foundation Summary 393
Memory Builders 397
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 397
    Definitions 397
    Further Reading 397
Part V Security
Chapter 9 Device and Network Security 399
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 399
Foundation Topics 403
Router and Switch Device Security 403
    Simple Password Protection for the CLI 403
        Better Protection of Enable and Username Passwords 405
        Using Secure Shell Protocol 405
    User Mode and Privileged Mode AAA Authentication 406
        Using a Default Set of Authentication Methods 407
        Using Multiple Authentication Methods 408
        Groups of AAA Servers 410
        Overriding the Defaults for Login Security 410
    PPP Security 411
Layer 2 Security 412
    Switch Security Best Practices for Unused and User Ports 413
        Port Security 413
        Dynamic ARP Inspection 417
        DHCP Snooping 420
        IP Source Guard 422
        802.1X Authentication Using EAP 423
        Storm Control 426
    General Layer 2 Security Recommendations 427
Layer 3 Security 429
    IP Access Control List Review 430
        ACL Rule Summary 431
        Wildcard Masks 433
    General Layer 3 Security Considerations 433
        Smurf Attacks, Directed Broadcasts, and RPF Checks 433
        Inappropriate IP Addresses 435
        TCP SYN Flood, the Established Bit, and TCP Intercept 436
    Classic Cisco IOS Firewall 438
        TCP Versus UDP with CBAC 439
        Cisco IOS Firewall Protocol Support 439
        Cisco IOS Firewall Caveats 440
        Cisco IOS Firewall Configuration Steps 440
    Cisco IOS Zone-Based Firewall 441
    Control-Plane Policing 446
        Preparing for CoPP Implementation 447
        Implementing CoPP 448
    Dynamic Multipoint VPN 451
        Step 1: Basic Configuration of IP Addresses 452
        Step 2: GRE Multipoint Tunnel Configuration on All Routers (for Spoke-to-Spoke Connectivity) 453
        Step 3: Configure IPsec to Encrypt mGRE Tunnels 457
        Step 4: DMVPN Routing Configuration 459
IPv6 First Hop Security 461
    First Hop Security for IPv6 461
    Link Operations 463
        End Node Security Enforcement 463
        First Hop Switch Security Enforcement 464
        Last Router Security Enforcement 464
    ICMPv6 and Neighbor Discovery Protocol 464
        Secure Neighbor Discovery (SeND) 465
        Securing at the First Hop 466
    RA Guard 467
    DHCPv6 Guard 468
        DHCPv6 Guard and the Binding Database 469
    IPv6 Device Tracking 471
    IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Inspection 472
    IPv6 Source Guard 473
    Port Access Control Lists (PACL) 475
Foundation Summary 476
Memory Builders 480
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 480
    Definitions 480
    Further Reading 480
Chapter 10 Tunneling Technologies 483
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 483
Foundation Topics 486
GRE Tunnels 486
    Dynamic Multipoint VPN Tunnels 487
        DMVPN Operation 488
        DMVPN Components 488
        DMVPN Operation 489
    IPv6 Tunneling and Related Techniques 495
        Tunneling Overview 496
        Manually Configured Tunnels 497
        Automatic IPv4-Compatible Tunnels 499
        IPv6-over-IPv4 GRE Tunnels 499
        Automatic 6to4 Tunnels 499
        ISATAP Tunnels 501
        SLAAC and DHCPv6 502
        NAT-PT 502
        NAT ALG 502
        NAT64 502
    Layer 2 VPNs 503
        Tagged Mode 503
        Raw Mode 503
        Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TPv3) 504
        AToM (Any Transport over MPLS) 504
        Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) 505
        Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV) 506
    GET VPN 506
Foundation Summary 512
Memory Builders 512
    Definitions 512
Part VI Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
Chapter 11
Multiprotocol Label Switching 515
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 515
Foundation Topics 519
MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 519
    MPLS IP Forwarding: Data Plane 520
        CEF Review 520
        Overview of MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 521
        MPLS Forwarding Using the FIB and LFIB 522
        The MPLS Header and Label 524
        The MPLS TTL Field and MPLS TTL Propagation 524
    MPLS IP Forwarding: Control Plane 526
        MPLS LDP Basics 527
        The MPLS Label Information Base Feeding the FIB and LFIB 529
        Examples of FIB and LFIB Entries 532
        Label Distribution Protocol Reference 534
    The Problem: Duplicate Customer Address Ranges 535
    The Solution: MPLS VPNs 537
    MPLS VPN Control Plane 539
        Virtual Routing and Forwarding Tables 540
        MP-BGP and Route Distinguishers 541
        Route Targets 543
        Overlapping VPNs 545
    MPLS VPN Configuration 546
        Configuring the VRF and Associated Interfaces 548
        Configuring the IGP Between PE and CE 550
        Configuring Redistribution Between PE-CE IGP and MP-BGP 553
        Configuring MP-BGP Between PEs 555
    MPLS VPN Data Plane 558
        Building the (Inner) VPN Label 559
        Creating LFIB Entries to Forward Packets to the Egress PE 560
        Creating VRF FIB Entries for the Ingress PE 562
        Penultimate Hop Popping 564
Other MPLS Applications 565
Implement Multi-VRF Customer Edge (VRF Lite) 566
    VRF Lite, Without MPLS 566
    VRF Lite with MPLS 569
Foundation Summary 570
Memory Builders 570
    Fill In Key Tables from Memory 570
    Definitions 570
    Further Reading 570
Part VII Final Preparation
Chapter 12 Final Preparation 573
Tools for Final Preparation 573
Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions on the CD 573
    Install the Software from the CD 574
    Activate and Download the Practice Exam 574
    Activating Other Exams 575
    Premium Edition 575
The Cisco Learning Network 575
Memory Tables 575
Chapter-Ending Review Tools 576
Suggested Plan for Final Review/Study 576
Using the Exam Engine 576
Summary 577
Part VIII Appendixes
Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes 579
Appendix B CCIE Exam Updates 583

Appendix C Decimal to Binary Conversion Table
Appendix D IP Addressing Practice
Appendix E Key Tables for CCIE Study
Appendix F Solutions for Key Tables for CCIE Study

9781587144912   TOC   10/22/2014


Narbik Kocharians, CCIE No. 12410 (Routing and Switching, Security, SP), is a Triple CCIE with more than 32 years of experience in the IT industry. He has designed, implemented, and supported numerous enterprise networks. Narbik is the president of Micronics Training, Inc. (, where he teaches CCIE R&S and SP boot camps.

Terry Vinson, CCIE No. 35347 (Routing and Switching, Data Center), is a seasoned instructor with nearly 25 years of experience teaching and writing technical courses and training materials. Terry has taught and developed training content, as well as provided technical consulting for high-end firms in the north Virginia/Washington, D.C. area. His technical expertise lies in the Cisco arena with a focus on all routing and switching technologies as well as the latest data center technologies, including Nexus switching, unified computing, and storage-area networking (SAN) technologies. Terry currently teaches for CCIE R&S and Data Center Bootcamps for Micronics Training, Inc. and enjoys sailing and game design in his “free time.”