Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2) Foundation Learning Guide

Cisco Press
John Tiso  
Total pages
September 2013
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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2) Foundation Learning Guide
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This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations. This self-paced learning tool provides the student with all the knowledge needed to install, operate, and troubleshoot a small to medium-sized branch office enterprise network.


  • The only Cisco authorized self-study guide for the CCNA ICND2 exam
  • Includes the Third Edition of the best-selling self-study guide for CCNA for masting ICND2 materials
  • Complement classroom learning with materials developed in conjunction with Cisco
  • Concepts taught via a variety of new and proven learning features

New to this Edition

updated for the latest exam

Table of Contents

Introduction xviii

Chapter 1 Implementing Scalable Medium-Sized Networks 1

Understanding and Troubleshooting VLANs and VLAN Trunking 2

 VLAN Overview 2

 Trunk Operation 6

 Configuring Trunks 7

     Dynamic Trunking Protocol 8

 VLAN Troubleshooting 9

 Trunk Troubleshooting 10

Building Redundant Switch Topologies 11

 Understanding Redundant Topologies 12

 BPDU Breakdown 15

 STP Types Defined 20

 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus 21

 Analyzing and Reviewing STP Topology and Operation 24

 Examining Spanning-Tree Failures 26

 STP Features: PortFast, BPDU Guard, Root Guard, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast 28

Improving Redundancy and Increasing Bandwidth with EtherChannel 29

 EtherChannel Protocols 31

 Port Aggregation Protocol 31

 Link Aggregation Control Protocol 32

 Configuring EtherChannel 33

 Checking EtherChannel Operation 34

Understanding Default Gateway Redundancy 36

 Hot Standby Router Protocol 37

 HSRP Interface Tracking 38

 HSRP Load Balancing 39

 HSRP in Service Deployments 39

 HSRP in IPv6 40

 Gateway Load-Balancing Protocol 40

Chapter Summary 42

Review Questions 42

Chapter 2 Troubleshooting Basic Connectivity 47

Troubleshooting IPv4 Basic Connectivity 48

 Components of End-to-End IPv4 Troubleshooting 48

 Verification of Connectivity 51

 Cisco Discovery Protocol 58

 Verification of Physical Connectivity Issues 60

 Identification of Current and Desired Path 63

 Default Gateway Issues 66

 Name Resolution Issues 68

 ACL Issues 71

 Understanding Networking in Virtualized Computing Environments 72

Troubleshooting IPv6 Network Connectivity 75

 Understanding IPv6 Addressing 75

 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 76

 Components of Troubleshooting End-to-End IPv6 Connectivity 78

 Verification of End-to-End IPv6 Connectivity 79

 Neighbor Discovery in IPv6 80

 Identification of Current and Desired IPv6 Path 82

 Default Gateway Issues in IPv6 82

 Name Resolution Issues in IPv6 83

 ACL Issues in IPv6 84

 IPv6 in a Virtual Environment 86

A Last Note on Troubleshooting 86

Chapter Summary 88

Review Questions 88

Chapter 3 Implementing an EIGRP Solution 91

Dynamic Routing Review 92

 Routing 92

 Routing Domains 92

 Classification of Routing Protocols 93

 Classful Routing Versus Classless Routing 94

 Administrative Distance 95

EIGRP Features and Function 98

 EIGRP Packet Types 100

 EIGRP Path Selection 101

 Understanding the EIGRP Metric 103

 EIGRP Basic Configuration 105

 Verification of EIGRP Configuration and Operation 106

 EIGRP Passive Interfaces 108

 Load Balancing with EIGRP 111

 Variance 112

 Traffic Sharing 113

 EIGRP Authentication 114

Troubleshooting EIGRP 115

 Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP 115

 Troubleshooting EIGRP Neighbor Issues 118

 Troubleshooting EIGRP Routing Table Issues 121

 Issues Caused by Unadvertised Routes 121

 Issues Caused by Route Filtering 122

 Issues Caused by Automatic Network Summarization 123

Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 124

 EIGRP IPv6 Theory of Operation 124

 EIGRP IPv6 Feasible Successor 128

 EIGRP IPv6 Load Balancing 129

 EIGRP for IPv6 Command Syntax 130

 Verification of EIGRP IPv6 Operation 131

 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Example 133

 Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 135

Chapter Summary 136

Review Questions 137

Chapter 4 Implementing a Scalable Multiarea Network with OSPF 143

Understanding OSPF 143

 Link-State Routing Protocol Overview 144

 Link-State Routing Protocol Data Structures 145

 Understanding Metrics in OSPF 146

 Establishment of OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 147

 Building a Link-State Database 149

 OSPF Area Structure 150

 OSPF Area and Router Types 150

 Link-State Advertisements 153

Multiarea OSPF IPv4 Implementation 154

 Single-Area vs. Multiarea OSPF 155

 Stub Areas, Not So Stubby Areas, and Totally Stub Areas 155

 Planning for the Implementation of OSPF 158

 Multiarea OSPF Configuration 158

 Multiarea OSPF Verification 160

 Troubleshooting Multiarea OSPF 162

 OSPF Neighbor States 162

 Components of Troubleshooting OSPF 166

 Troubleshooting OSPF Neighbor Issues 168

 Troubleshooting OSPF Routing Table Issues 172

 Troubleshooting OSPF Path Selection 174

 Examining OSPFv3 176

 OSPFv3 Key Characteristics 176

 OSPFv3 LSAs 177

 Configuring OSPFv3 178

 OSPFv3 Verification 179

Chapter Summary 180

Review Questions 181

Chapter 5 Understanding WAN Technologies 185

Understanding WAN Technologies 186

 WAN Architecture 188

 Hub-and-Spoke Networks 188

 Partial-Mesh Networks 189

 Full-Mesh Networks 189

 Point-to-Point Networks 191

 WAN Devices 192

 Serial WAN Cabling 195

 WAN Layer 2 Protocols 197

 Other WAN Protocols 199

 Integrated Services Digital Network 199

 X.25 199

 Multiprotocol Label Switching 200

 Service Provider Demarcation Points 200

 T1/E1 200

 DSL Termination 201

 Cable Termination 202

 Other WAN Termination 203

 WAN Link Options 203

  Private WAN Connection Options 204

 Public WAN Connection Options 205

 Metropolitan-Area Networks 207

 Extranet 209

 Configuring Serial Interfaces 209

 Configuration of a Serial Interface 213

 Integrated CSU/DSU Modules 214

 Back-to-Back Routers with an Integrated CSU/DSU 217

 HDLC Protocol 218

 Point-to-Point Protocol 220

 PPP Authentication: PAP 222

 PPP Authentication: CHAP 222

 PPP Configuration 223

 Configuring PPP Authentication with CHAP 225

 Verifying CHAP Configuration 227

 Configuring Multilink PPP over Serial Lines 228

 Verifying Multilink PPP 230

 Troubleshooting Serial Encapsulation 232

Establishing a WAN Connection Using Frame Relay 233

 Understanding Frame Relay 233

 Frame Relay Topologies 236

 Frame Relay Reachability and Routing Protocol Issues 237

 Frame Relay Signaling 239

 Frame Relay Address Mappings 240

 Configuring Frame Relay 243

 Point-to-Point and Multipoint Frame Relay 244

 Configuring Point-to-Point Frame Relay Subinterfaces 245

 Configuring Point-to-Multipoint Frame Relay 247

 Verifying Frame Relay Configuration 249

Introducing Cisco VPN Solutions 252

 Introducing IPsec 255

 GRE Tunnels 256

 Configuring a GRE Tunnel 258

 GRE Tunnel Verification 260

 Understanding MPLS Networking 261

 Basic Troubleshooting of MPLS Services 263

Chapter Summary 264

Review Questions 265

Chapter 6 Network Device Management 269

Configuring Network Devices to Support Network Management

 Protocols 270

 SNMP Versions 270

 Obtaining Data from an SNMP Agent 271

 Monitoring Polling Data in SNMP 272

 Monitoring TRAPs in SNMP 273

 Sending Data to an SNMP Agent 274

 SNMP MIBs 275

 Basic SNMP Configuration and Verification 276

 Syslog Overview 279

 Syslog Message Format 281

 Syslog Configuration 281

 NetFlow Overview 283

 NetFlow Architecture 285

 NetFlow Configuration 286

 Verifying NetFlow Operation 287

Router Initialization and Configuration 288

 Router Internal Component Review 289

 ROM Functions 291

 Router Power-Up Sequence 292

 Configuration Register 293

 Changing the Configuration Register 294

 Locating the Cisco IOS Image to Load 295

 Loading a Cisco IOS Image File 297

 Selecting and Loading the Configuration 300

 Cisco IOS File System and Devices 302

 Managing Cisco IOS Images 305

 Interpreting Cisco IOS Image Filenames 305

 Creating a Cisco IOS Image Backup 306

  Upgrading the Cisco IOS Image 308

 Managing Device Configuration Files 311

 Cisco IOS Password Recovery 313

Cisco IOS Licensing 315

 Licensing Overview 315

 Cisco IOS Licensing and Packaging Prior to Cisco IOS 15 316

 Cisco IOS 15 Licensing and Packaging 317

 Obtaining Licensing 318

 License Verification 320

 Permanent License Installation 321

 Evaluation License Installation 322

 Backing Up Licenses 325

 Uninstalling Permanent Licenses 325

 Rehosting a License 327

Cisco IOS-XR, IOS-XE, and NX-OS 328

 Cisco IOS-XR 329

 Cisco IOS-XE 330

 Cisco NX-OS 331

Chapter Summary 332

Review Questions 333

Chapter 7 Advanced Troubleshooting 339

Advanced Router Diagnostics 340

 Collecting Cisco IOS Device Diagnostic Information 340

 Using the Output Interpreter to Detect Issues 341

 Researching Cisco IOS Software Defects 343

Device Debugging 345

 Capturing Debugging Output 345

 Verifying and Disabling Debugging 350

 Limiting Debugging Output 351

 ACL Triggered Debugging 351

 Conditionally Triggered Debugging 356

 Troubleshooting an Issue with Debugging 357

 Verifying Protocol Operation with Debugging 359

Chapter Summary 361

Review Questions 361

Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 363

Appendix B Basic L3VPN MPLS Configuration and Verification 369

Glossary of Key Terms 375

TOC, 9781587143779, 8/27/2013


John Tiso , CCIE #5162, holds a variety of industry certifications in addition to his Cisco CCIE. These include the Cisco CCDP, Cisco CCNP-Voice, Cisco CCT, and several specializations from Cisco. He is a Microsoft MCSE and also holds certifications from CompTIA, Nortel Networks, Novell, Sun Microsystems, IBM, and HP.


John has a Graduate Citation in Strategic Management from Harvard University and a B.S. degree from Adelphi University. His writing has been published in a variety of industry journals and by Cisco Press. He has served as a technical editor for McGraw-Hill and Cisco Press. John is a past Esteemed Speaker for Cisco Networkers (Live!) and was a speaker at the National CIPTUG Conference. He has been an expert on Cisco’s “Ask the Expert” NetPro forum and a question developer for the CCIE program.


John’s current role is as a senior engineer at a Cisco Partner. He has a quarter of a centuryexperience in the technology industry, after deciding to stop carrying refrigerators in the family business. Prior to his current position, he held multiple roles while working at Cisco, including TAC Engineer, Systems Engineer, and Product Manager. While at Cisco,one of John’s last projects was as a member of the team that developed the recent updates to the CCNA program. Prior to joining Cisco, he was a lead architect and consultant for a Cisco Gold Partner.


John currently resides in Amherst, New Hampshire, with his wife Lauren and their three children, Kati, Nick, and Danny. John is a nine-time marathon finisher and also a Therapy Dog International certified handler of his therapy dog and running partner, Molly. He can be reached at .