Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP ROUTE 300-101)

Cisco Press
Diane Teare / Bob Vachon / Rick Graziani  
Total pages
January 2015
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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP ROUTE 300-101)


This is a Cisco authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNP preparation. This book teaches readers how to design, configure, maintain, and scale routed networks that are growing in size and complexity. The book covers all routing principles covered in the CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing course. This intermediate-level text assumes that readers have been exposed to beginner-level networking concepts contained in the CCNA (ICND1 and ICND2) certification curriculum. No previous exposure to the CCNP level subject matter is required, so the book provides a great deal of detail on the topics covered.


  • Foundational learning for the CCNP ROUTE 300-101 Exam
  • Includes self-assessment review questions, configuration exercises, chapter objectives and summaries, key term definitions, job aids, and command summaries
  • Unique content developed in conjunction with Learning@Cisco, the developers of the new CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing recommended course and CCNP ROUTE exam

New to this Edition

This revision to the popular Foundation Learning Guide format for Advanced Routing at the Professional level is fully updated to include complete coverage of all routing topics covered in the new Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) course.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxv

Chapter 1 Basic Network and Routing Concepts 1

Differentiating Routing Protocols 2

  Enterprise Network Infrastructure 2

  Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols 3

  Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols 5

  IGP versus EGP 5

  Types of Routing Protocols 7

  Convergence 8

  Route Summarization 9

  Route Protocol Scalability 10

Understanding Network Technologies 10

  Traffic Types 11

  IPv6 Address Types 13

  ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 14

  Network Types 15

  NBMA Networks 16

  Routing Over the Internet 18

Connecting Remote Locations with Headquarters 18

  Principles of Static Routing 19

  Configuring an IPv4 Static Route 20

  Configuring a Static Default Route 22

  Basic PPP Overview 23

  PPP Authentication Overview 23

  PPPoE 26

  Basic Frame Relay Overview 28

  VPN Connectivity Overview 31

  MPLS-based VPNs 31

  Tunneling VPNs 32

  Hybrid VPNs 32

  Routing Across MPLS VPNs 32

  Routing Over GRE Tunnel 34

  Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network 35

  Multipoint GRE 36

  NHRP 37

  IPsec 39

Routing and TCP/IP Operations 40

  MSS, Fragmentation, and PMTUD 40

  IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD 41

  Bandwidth Delay Product 41

  TCP Starvation 42

  Latency 42

  ICMP Redirect 42

Implementing RIPng 43

  RIP Overview 43

  RIPv2 Overview 45

  Configuring RIPng 47

  Basic RIPng Configuration 47

  Propagating a Default Route 50

  Investigating the RIPng Database 53

Summary 55

Review Questions 56

Chapter 2 EIGRP Implementation 59

Establishing EIGRP Neighbor Relationships 60

  EIGRP Features 60

  EIGRP Features 62

  EIGRP Operation Overview 63

  Configuring and Verifying Basic EIGRP for IPv4 64

  Manipulating EIGRP Timers 73

  EIGRP Neighbor Relationship over Frame Relay 74

  Establishing EIGRP over Layer 3 MPLS VPN 74

  Establishing EIGRP over Layer 2 MPLS VPN 75

Building the EIGRP Topology Table 76

  Building and Examining the EIGRP Topology Table 77

  Choosing the Best Path 80

  Exchange of Routing Knowledge in EIGRP 88

  EIGRP Metric 88

  EIGRP Metric Calculation 89

  EIGRP Wide Metrics 90

  EIGRP Metric Calculation Example 90

  EIGRP Metric Calculation Example 91

  EIGRP Path Calculation Example 92

Optimizing EIGRP Behavior 94

  EIGRP Queries 95

  EIGRP Stub Routers 96

  Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing 97

  EIGRP Stub Options 100

  Stuck in Active 108

  Reducing Query Scope by Using Summary Routes 109

  Configuring EIGRP Summarization 110

  Determining the Summary Route 116

  Obtaining Default Route 120

  Load Balancing with EIGRP 123

  Configuring EIGRP Load Balancing 123

  EIGRP Load Balancing 124

  EIGRP Load Balancing Across Unequal-Metric Paths 126

Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 128

  Overview of EIGRP for IPv6 128

  Configuring and Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 129

  EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration 130

  Determining the IPv6 Summary Route 134

Named EIGRP Configuration 136

  Introduction to Named EIGRP Configuration 136

  Configuring Named EIGRP 137

  Address Families 139

  EIGRP for IPv4 Address Family 139

  EIGRP for IPv6 Address Family 142

  Named EIGRP Configuration Modes 148

  Classic Versus Named EIGRP Configuration 150

Summary 151

Review Questions 152

Chapter 3 OSPF Implementation 155

Establishing OSPF Neighbor Relationships 155

  OSPF Features 156

  OSPF Operation Overview 157

  Hierarchical Structure of OSPF 158

  Design Restrictions of OSPF 160

  OSPF Message Types 160

  Basic OSPF Configuration 161

  Optimizing OSPF Adjacency Behavior 170

  Using OSPF Priority in the DR/BDR Election 174

  OSPF Behavior in NBMA Hub-and-Spoke Topology 175

  The Importance of MTU 177

  Manipulating OSPF Timers 179

  OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Point-to-Point Links 182

  OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 3 MPLS VPN 182

  OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 2 MPLS VPN 184

  OSPF Neighbor States 184

  OSPF Network Types 186

  Configuring Passive Interfaces 187

Building the Link-State Database 187

  OSPF LSA Types 188

  Examining the OSPF Link-State Database 189

  OSPF Link-State Database 190

  OSPF Type 2 Network LSA 196

  OSPF Type 3 Summary LSA 197

  OSPF Type 4 ASBR Summary LSA 199

  OSPF Type 5 External LSA 201

  Periodic OSPF Database Changes 203

  Exchanging and Synchronizing LSDBs 204

  Synchronizing the LSDB on Multiaccess Networks 206

  Running the SPF Algorithm 207

  Configuring OSPF Path Selection 208

  OSPF Path Selection 208

  OSPF Best Path Calculation 210

  Default OSPF Costs 211

  Calculating the Cost of Intra-Area Routes 214

  Calculating the Cost of Interarea Routes 214

  Selecting Between Intra-Area and Interarea Routes 215

Optimizing OSPF Behavior 215

  OSPF Route Summarization 216

  Benefits of Route Summarization 217

  Configuring OSPF Route Summarization 218

  Summarization on ABRs 223

  Summarization on ASBRs 224

  OSPF Virtual Links 225

  Configuring OSPF Virtual Links 227

  Configuring OSPF Stub Areas 229

  OSPF Stub Areas 230

  OSPF Totally Stubby Areas 234

  Cost of the Default Route in a Stub Area 236

  The default-information originate Command 237

  Other Stubby Area Types 238

OSPFv3 239

  Configuring OSPFv3 240

  Implementing OSPFv3 241

  OSPFv3 for IPv4 and IPv6 246

  Configuring Advanced OSPFv3 260

  OSPFv3 Caveats 261

Summary 262

Review Questions 263

Chapter 4 Manipulating Routing Updates 267

Using Multiple IP Routing Protocols on a Network 267

  Why Run Multiple Routing Protocols? 269

  Running Multiple Routing Protocols 269

  Administrative Distance 269

  Multiple Routing Protocols Solutions 270

Implementing Route Redistribution 270

  Defining Route Redistribution 270

  Planning to Redistribute Routes 271

  Redistributing Routes 271

  Seed Metrics 272

  Default Seed Metrics 273

  Configuring and Verifying Basic Redistribution in IPv4 and IPv6 275

  Redistributing OSPFv2 Routes into the EIGRP Routing Domain 276

  Redistributing OSPFv3 Routes into the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Domain 279

  Redistributing EIGRP Routes into the OSPFv2 Routing Domain 281

  Redistributing EIGRP for IPv6 Routes into the OSPFv3 Routing Domain 285

  Types of Redistribution Techniques 287

  One-Point Redistribution 287

  Multipoint Redistribution 288

  Redistribution Problems 289

  Preventing Routing Loops in a Redistribution Environment 291

  Verifying Redistribution Operation 292

Controlling Routing Update Traffic 292

  Why Filter Routes? 292

  Route Filtering Methods 293

  Using Distribute Lists 294

   Configuring Distribute Lists 294

  Distribute List and ACL Example 295

  Using Prefix Lists 297

  Prefix List Characteristics 297

  Configuring Prefix Lists 298

  Distribute List and Prefix List Example 299

  Prefix List Examples 300

  Verifying Prefix Lists 301

  Manipulating Redistribution Using ACLs, Prefix Lists, and Distribute Lists 302

  Using Route Maps 305

  Understanding Route Maps 305

  Route Map Applications 305

  Configuring Route Maps 306

  Route Map Match and Set Statements 308

  Configuring Route Redistribution Using Route Maps 310

  Using Route Maps with Redistribution 310

  Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Maps 311

  Mutual Redistribution without Route Filtering 312

  Mutual Redistribution with Route Maps 313

  Change Administrative Distance to Enable Optimal Routing 315

  Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Tagging 318

  Caveats of Redistribution 319

    Summary 320

References 323

Review Questions 323

Chapter 5 Path Control Implementation 327

Using Cisco Express Forwarding Switching 327

  Control and Data Plane 328

  Cisco Switching Mechanisms 328

  Process and Fast Switching 332

  Cisco Express Forwarding 333

  Analyzing Cisco Express Forwarding 335

  Verify the Content of the CEF Tables 335

  Enable and Disable CEF by Interface and Globally 341

Understanding Path Control 343

  The Need for Path Control 343

  Implementing Path Control Using Policy-Based Routing 344

  PBR Features 344

  Steps for Configuring PBR 345

  Configuring PBR 346

  Verifying PBR 348

  Configuring PBR Example 348

  Implementing Path Control Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs 354

  PBR and IP SLA 354

  IP SLA Features 354

  Steps for Configuring IP SLAs 356

  Verifying Path Control Using IOS IP SLAs 360

  Configuring IP SLA Example 361

  Configuring PBR and IP SLA Example 364

Summary 369

References 370

Review Questions 370

Chapter 6 Enterprise Internet Connectivity 373

Planning Enterprise Internet Connectivity 374

  Connecting Enterprise Networks to an ISP 374

 Enterprise Connectivity Requirements 374

  ISP Redundancy 375

  Public IP Address Assignment 376

  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority 376

  Regional Internet Registries 377

  Public IP Address Space 377

  Autonomous System Numbers 378

Establishing Single-Homed IPv4 Internet Connectivity 381

  Configuring a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address 381

  DHCP Operation 382

  Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address with DHCP 383

  Configuring a Router as a DHCP Server and DHCP Relay Agent 384

  NAT 385

  Configuring Static NAT 388

  Configuring Dynamic NAT 389

  Configuring PAT 390

  Limitations of NAT 392

  NAT Virtual Interface 393

  Configuring NAT Virtual Interface 393

  Verifying NAT Virtual Interface 396

Establishing Single-Homed IPv6 Internet Connectivity 398

  Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv6 Address 398

  Manual Assignment 399

  Configuring Basic IPv6 Internet Connectivity 399

  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 401

  DHCPv6 Operation 402

  Stateless DCHPv6 403

  Stateful DHCPv6 404

  DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation 405

  NAT for IPv6 405

  NAT64 405

  NPTv6 405

  IPv6 ACLs 405

  IPv6 ACL Characteristics 406

  Configuring IPv6 ACLs 406

  Securing IPv6 Internet Connectivity 409

Improving Internet Connectivity Resilience 410

  Drawbacks of a Single-Homed Internet Connectivity 410

  Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity 410

  Dual-Homed Connectivity Options 411

  Configuring Best Path for Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity 411

  Multihomed Internet Connectivity 413

Summary 415

References 417

Review Questions 418

Chapter 7 BGP Implementation 423

BGP Terminology, Concepts, and Operation 424

  BGP Use Between Autonomous Systems 424

  Comparison with Other Scalable Routing Protocols 425

  BGP Path Vector Characteristics 426

  BGP Characteristics 428

  BGP Tables 430

  BGP Message Types 431

  Open and Keepalive Messages 431

  Update Messages 433

  Notification Messages 433

  When to Use BGP 433

  When Not to Use BGP 434

Implementing Basic BGP 435

  BGP Neighbor Relationships 435

  External BGP Neighbors 436

  Internal BGP Neighbors 437

  iBGP on All Routers in a Transit Path 438

  Basic BGP Configuration Requirements 442

  Entering BGP Configuration Mode 442

  Defining BGP Neighbors and Activating BGP Sessions 443

  Basic BGP Configuration and Verification 444

  Configuring and Verifying an eBGP Session 445

  Configuring and Verifying an iBGP Session 449

  Advertising Networks in BGP and Verifying That They Are Propagated 450

  Using the Next-Hop-Self Feature 457

  Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor States 458

  BGP Session Resilience 460

  Sourcing BGP from Loopback Address 461

  eBGP Multihop 463

  Resetting BGP Sessions 464

BGP Attributes and the Path-Selection Process 467

  BGP Path Selection 467

  BGP Path-Selection Process 468

  The Path-Selection Decision Process with a Multihomed Connection 469

 BGP Attributes 471

  Well-Known Attributes 471

  Optional Attributes 472

  Defined BGP Attributes 472

  The AS-Path Attribute 473

  The Next-Hop Attribute 474

  The Origin Attribute 475

  The Local-Preference Attribute 475

  The Community Attribute 475

  The MED Attribute 476

  The Weight Attribute (Cisco Only) 478

  Changing the Weight for All Updates from a Neighbor 479

  Changing the Weight Using Route Maps 479

  Influencing BGP Path Selection 480

  Changing the Weight 485

  Changing Local Preference 486

  Setting the AS-Path 488

Controlling BGP Routing Updates 491

  Filtering BGP Routing Updates 492

  BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists 492

 BGP Filtering Using AS-Path Access Lists 494

  BGP Filtering Using Route Maps 496

  Filtering Order 498

  Clearing the BGP Session 498

  BGP Peer Groups 498

  Peer Group Operation 498

  Peer Group Configuration 500

  Peer Group Configuration Example 500

Implementing BGP for IPv6 Internet Connectivity 502

  MP-BGP Support for IPv6 502

  Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv4 Session 504

  Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv6 Session 506

  BGP for IPv6 Configuration and Verification 507

  Initial State of Routers 508

  Enable eBGP IPv6 Route Exchange 511

  Enable iBGP IPv6 Route Exchange 516

  Comparing IPv4 to Dual (IPv4/IPv6) BGP Transport 518

  BGP Filtering Mechanisms for IPv6 518

  IPv6 Prefix List Filtering 518

  IPv6 Path Selection with BGP Local Preference 519

Summary 520

References 522

Review Questions 523

Chapter 8 Routers and Routing Protocol Hardening 527

Securing the Management Plane on Cisco Routers 528

  Securing the Management Plane 529

  Router Security Policy 530

  Encrypted Passwords 531

  Use Strong Passwords 532

  Encrypting Passwords 532

  Authentication, Authorization, Accounting 536

  RADIUS and TACACS+ Overview 536

  Enabling AAA and Local Authentication 538

  Enabling AAA RADIUS Authentication with Local User for Backup 539

  Enabling AAA TACACS+ Authentication with Local User for Backup 541

  Configuring Authorization and Accounting 542

  Limitations of TACACS+ and RADIUS 542

  Use SSH Instead of Telnet 543

  Securing Access to the Infrastructure Using Router ACLs 547

  Implement Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding 549

  uRPF in an Enterprise Network 550

  uRPF Examples 550

  Enabling uRPF 551

  Implement Logging 551

  Implementing Network Time Protocol 552

  NTP Modes 552

  Enabling NTP 554

  Securing NTP 555

  NTP Versions 556

  NTP in IPv6 Environment 557

  Simple NTP 557

  Implementing SNMP 558

  SNMPv3 561

  Enabling SNMPv3 561

  Verifying SNMPv3 562

  Configuration Backups 563

  The archive Command 563

  Using SCP 565

  Enabling SCP on a Router 565

  Disabling Unused Services 567

  Conditional Debugging 568

  Enabling Conditional Debugging 569

Routing Protocol Authentication Options 570

  The Purpose of Routing Protocol Authentication 570

  Plain-Text Authentication 571

  Hashing Authentication 572

  Time-Based Key Chains 574

  Key Chain Specifics 574

  Authentication Options with Different Routing Protocols 575

Configuring EIGRP Authentication 576

  EIGRP Authentication Configuration Checklist 577

  Configuring EIGRP Authentication 577

  Configure EIGRP MD5 Authentication Mode 578

  Configure EIGRP Key-Based Routing Authentication 579

  Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 Authentication 581

  Configure EIGRP for IPv6 MD5 Authentication Mode 581

  Configuring Named EIGRP Authentication 582

Configuring OSPF Authentication 583

  OSPF Authentication 583

  OSPF MD5 Authentication 584

  Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication 584

  Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication on Interfaces 585

  Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication in an Area 586

  OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication 587

  Configuring OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication 587

  Configure OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication Example 588

  OSPFv3 Authentication 590

  Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication 590

  Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication on an Interface Example 591

  Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication in an Area Example 592

Configuring BGP Authentication 593

  BGP Authentication Configuration Checklist 594

  BGP Authentication Configuration 594

  BGP for IPv6 Authentication Configuration 596

Implementing VRF-Lite 597

  VRF and VRF-Lite 597

  Enabling VRF 597

Easy Virtual Network 601

Summary 603

References 604

Review Questions 604

Appendix A Answers to End of Chapter Review Questions 607

Appendix B IPv4 Supplement 613

Appendix C BGP Supplement 671

Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations 697

9781587204562, TOC, 12/18/2014


Diane Teare, P.Eng, CCNP, CCDP, CCSI, PMP, is a professional in the networking, training, project management, and e-learning fields. She has more than 25 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software, and has been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies. Diane is a Cisco Certified Systems Instructor (CCSI), and holds her Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP), Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP), and Project Management Professional (PMP) certifications. She is an instructor, and the Course Director for the CCNA and CCNP Routing and Switching curriculum, with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners. She was the director of e-learning for the same company, where she was responsible for planning and supporting all the company’s e-learning offerings in Canada, including Cisco courses. Diane has a bachelor’s degree in applied science in electrical engineering and a master’s degree in applied science in management science. She authored or co-authored the following Cisco Press titles: the first edition of this book; the second edition of Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH); Campus Network Design Fundamentals; the three editions of Authorized Self-Study Guide Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI); and Building Scalable Cisco Networks. Diane edited the first two editions of the Authorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), and Designing Cisco Networks.


Bob Vachon, is a professor at Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, where he teaches Cisco networking infrastructure courses. He has more than 30 years of work and teaching experience in the computer networking and information technology field. Since 2001, Bob has collaborated as team lead, lead author, and subject matter expert on various CCNA, CCNA-S, and CCNP projects for Cisco and the Cisco Networking Academy. He also was a contributing author for the Routing Protocols Companion Guide, Connecting Networks Companion Guide, and authored the CCNA Security (640-554) Portable Command Guide. In his downtime, Bob enjoys playing the guitar, playing pool, and either working in his gardens or white-water canoe tripping.


Rick Graziani teaches computer science and computer networking courses at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California. Rick has worked and taught in the computer networking and information technology field for almost 30 years. Before teaching, Rick worked in IT for various companies, including Santa Cruz Operation, Tandem Computers, and Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation. He holds a Master of Arts degree in computer science and systems theory from California State University Monterey Bay. Rick also works for the Cisco Networking Academy Curriculum Engineering team and has written other books for Cisco Press, including IPv6 Fundamentals. When Rick is not working, he is most likely surfing. Rick is an avid surfer who enjoys surfing at his favorite Santa Cruz breaks.